Modulation of macrophage immune responses by Echinacea

Stevenson, L.M., Matthias, A., Banbury, L., Penman, K.G., Bone, K.M., Leach, D. and Lehmann, R.P. (2005) Modulation of macrophage immune responses by Echinacea. Molecules, 10 10: 1279-1285. doi:10.3390/10101279

Author Stevenson, L.M.
Matthias, A.
Banbury, L.
Penman, K.G.
Bone, K.M.
Leach, D.
Lehmann, R.P.
Title Modulation of macrophage immune responses by Echinacea
Journal name Molecules   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1420-3049
Publication date 2005-10-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.3390/10101279
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 10
Issue 10
Start page 1279
End page 1285
Total pages 7
Editor Shu-Kun Lin
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publisher Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Language eng
Subject 320202 Cellular Immunology
730102 Immune system and allergy
Abstract Echinacea preparations are widely used herbal medicines for the prevention and treatment of colds and minor infections. There is little evidence for the individual components in Echinacea that contribute to immune regulatory activity. Activity of an ethanolic Echinacea extract and several constituents, including cichoric acid, have been examined using three in vitro measures of macrophage immune function - NF-kappa B, TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO). In cultured macrophages, all components except the monoene alkylamide (AA1) decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated NF-kappa B levels. 0.2 mu g/ml cichoric acid and 2.0 mu g/mL Echinacea Premium Liquid (EPL) and EPL alkylamide fraction (EPL AA) were found to significantly decrease TNF-alpha production under LPS stimulated conditions in macrophages. In macrophages, only the alkylamide mixture isolated from the ethanolic Echinacea extract decreased LPS stimulated NO production. In this study, the mixture of alkylamides in the Echinacea ethanolic liquid extract did not respond in the same manner in the assays as the individual alkylamides investigated. While cichoric acid has been shown to affect NF-kappa B, TNF-alpha and NO levels, it is unlikely to be relevant in the Echinacea alterations of the immune response in vivo due to its nonbioavailability - i.e. no demonstrated absorption across the intestinal barrier and no detectable levels in plasma. These results demonstrate that Echinacea is an effective modulator of macrophage immune responses in vitro.
Keyword Chemistry, Organic
Nitric Oxide
Nf-kappa B
Nitric-oxide Synthase
Normal Rats
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2006 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Medicine Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 17 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 20 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 17:01:56 EST