Illicit Opiate Abuse

Hall, W. D., Doran, C. M., Degenhardt, L. and Harwood, H. (2006). Illicit Opiate Abuse. In D. Jamison, J. Breman, A. Measham, G. Alleyne, M. Claeson, D. Evans, P. Jha, A. Mills and P. Musgrove (Ed.), Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries 2nd ed. ed. (pp. 907-931) NY, USA: Oxford University Press.

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Author Hall, W. D.
Doran, C. M.
Degenhardt, L.
Harwood, H.
Title of chapter Illicit Opiate Abuse
Title of book Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries
Place of Publication NY, USA
Publisher Oxford University Press
Publication Year 2006
Sub-type Other
Edition 2nd ed.
ISBN 0821361791
9780821361795
Editor D. Jamison
J. Breman
A. Measham
G. Alleyne
M. Claeson
D. Evans
P. Jha
A. Mills
P. Musgrove
Chapter number 48
Start page 907
End page 931
Total pages 25
Total chapters 73
Collection year 2006
Language eng
Subjects 340204 Health Economics
730205 Substance abuse
BX
140208 Health Economics
Abstract/Summary Illicit opiate use, especially injected drugs, contributes to premature mortality and morbidity in many developed and developing societies. The economic costs of illicit drug use are substantial. Fatal overdoses and HIV/AIDS resulting from sharing dirty needles and injecting equipment are major contributors to mortality and morbidity. Illicit opioid use accounted for 0.7 percent of global disability–adjusted life years in 2000. An estimated 15.3 million people, or 0.4 percent of the world population ages 15 to 64, used illicit opioids in 2002, with more than half using heroin and the rest using opium or diverted pharmaceuticals such as buprenorphine, methadone, or morphine. The most popular interventions for illicit opioid dependence in many developed societies have been law enforcement efforts to interdict the drug supply and enforce legal sanctions against drug use. One consequence has been that illicit opioid users have been exposed to the least effective intervention: imprisonment for drug or property offenses. The most effective intervention to reduce blood–borne virus infection resulting from illicit drug injections is provision of clean injecting equipment to users. This intervention has been widely supported in developed countries, but less so in developing countries. In addition, vaccinations are effective against hepatitis B. In treatment settings, the most popular interventions have been detoxification and drug–free treatment, which has proven the least productive in retaining opioid–dependent people in treatment. Opioid agonists have a niche role in treatment of opioid dependence, especially if their efficacy improves with development of long–acting injectable forms of the drug.
Q-Index Code BX

 
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Created: Tue, 14 Aug 2007, 12:51:37 EST