Global governance, neoliberalism and national responses: the case of the Bangladesh's ready‐made garment (RMG) sector

Khan, M. Adil and Milne, Grace (2018) Global governance, neoliberalism and national responses: the case of the Bangladesh's ready‐made garment (RMG) sector. Development Policy Review, . doi:10.1111/dpr.12383


Author Khan, M. Adil
Milne, Grace
Title Global governance, neoliberalism and national responses: the case of the Bangladesh's ready‐made garment (RMG) sector
Journal name Development Policy Review   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1467-7679
0950-6764
Publication date 2018-05-04
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/dpr.12383
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Total pages 26
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell
Language eng
Abstract From development perspective, this article defines Global Governance (GG) as a set of three global‐level systems, institutions, and processes that interact and manifest at the country level and influence policies relating to development as well as the outcomes. The three key GG components that influence development are: (i) the International Trade and Investment (ITI) systems that provide foreign investment capital and thus promote economic growth; (ii) the internationally agreed United Nations Development Agenda (UNDA), the 2015‐2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that include, inter alia, inclusion, equity, and sustainability as key parameters of development; and (iii) advocacy by international non‐government organizations (INGOs) for human rights and social justice. Depending on government priorities and their state of governance, countries respond to GG components in varied ways. By focusing on the Ready Made Garment (RMG) sector of Bangladesh the paper examines the relationships between the dynamics of GG/country‐level interface and government responses to GG components in policy and the outcomes, in the contexts of the country's overall political, social, and governance arrangements. It shows how over‐reliance on foreign capital for development financing and deregulated investment regime – a hallmark of neoliberal economic arrangements – undermines incorporation of SDGs’ and INGO equity principles, contributing to biased policy responses yielding unequal outcomes. The paper concludes that while GG/Country level interface offers both opportunities and risks, the way to minimize risks and maximize gains would include among other things, giving voices to citizens in policies through strengthening of democracy, introduction of compliance provisions for the implementation of the SDGs and UN Codes of Conduct for Businesses. The article, however, cautions that so long countries prioritize economic growth as the dominant goal of ‘development’ over social and environmental nourishment and adopt neoliberal economic policies to promote economic growth, inequity is unavoidable, if not inevitable and therefore, the way forward is to shift the focus of development from the economy to society to build ‘good society’ – one that nurtures and sustains itself through values of equity, empathy, social justice, environmental sustainability and economic prosperity – in which institutions and strategies including those that contribute to economic growth are organized such that these complement and do not compromise evolution of such societies.
Keyword Global governance (GG)
Neoliberalism
Bangladesh
Public policy
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Ready-made garment (RMG) sector
International non-government organizations (INGOs)
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Social Science Publications
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Created: Wed, 09 May 2018, 15:08:48 EST by Mr Mohammed Khan on behalf of School of Social Science