Comparison of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors use in eight European cities through analysis of urban wastewater

Causanilles, Ana, Rojas Cantillano, Daniela, Emke, Erik, Bade, Richard, Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio, Castiglioni, Sara, Castrignanò, Erika, Gracia-Lor, Emma, Hernández, Félix, Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara, Kinyua, Juliet, McCall, Ann-Kathrin, van Nuijs, Alexander L. N., Plósz, Benedek G., Ramin, Pedram, Rousis, Nikolaos I., Ryu, Yeonsuk, Thomas, Kevin V. and de Voogt, Pim (2018) Comparison of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors use in eight European cities through analysis of urban wastewater. Environment International, 115 279-284. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2018.03.039

Author Causanilles, Ana
Rojas Cantillano, Daniela
Emke, Erik
Bade, Richard
Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio
Castiglioni, Sara
Castrignanò, Erika
Gracia-Lor, Emma
Hernández, Félix
Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara
Kinyua, Juliet
McCall, Ann-Kathrin
van Nuijs, Alexander L. N.
Plósz, Benedek G.
Ramin, Pedram
Rousis, Nikolaos I.
Ryu, Yeonsuk
Thomas, Kevin V.
de Voogt, Pim
Title Comparison of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors use in eight European cities through analysis of urban wastewater
Journal name Environment International   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1873-6750
Publication date 2018-06-02
Year available 2018
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.envint.2018.03.039
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 115
Start page 279
End page 284
Total pages 6
Place of publication Kidlington, Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon Press
Language eng
Abstract In this work a step forward in investigating the use of prescription drugs, namely erectile dysfunction products, at European level was taken by applying the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. 24-h composite samples of untreated wastewater were collected at the entrance of eight wastewater treatment plants serving the catchment within the cities of Bristol, Brussels, Castellón, Copenhagen, Milan, Oslo, Utrecht and Zurich. A validated analytical procedure with direct injection of filtered aliquots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied. The target list included the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil) together with (bio)transformation products and other analogues. Only sildenafil and its two human urinary metabolites desmethyl- and desethylsildenafil were detected in the samples with concentrations reaching 60 ng L. The concentrations were transformed into normalized measured loads and the estimated actual consumption of sildenafil was back-calculated from these loads. In addition, national prescription data from five countries was gathered in the form of the number of prescribed daily doses and transformed into predicted loads for comparison. This comparison resulted in the evidence of a different spatial trend across Europe. In Utrecht and Brussels, prescription data could only partly explain the total amount found in wastewater; whereas in Bristol, the comparison was in agreement; and in Milan and Oslo a lower amount was found in wastewater than expected from the prescription data. This study illustrates the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology to investigate the use of counterfeit medication and rogue online pharmacy sales.
Keyword Consumption
Erectile dysfunction
Prescription drugs
Wastewater-based epidemiology
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS) Publications
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Created: Wed, 11 Apr 2018, 10:04:46 EST