Inhibitory effects of apomorphine and atropine and their combination on myopia in chicks

Schmid, Katrina L. and Wildsoet, Christine F. (2004) Inhibitory effects of apomorphine and atropine and their combination on myopia in chicks. Optometry And Vision Science, 81 2: 137-147. doi:10.1097/00006324-200402000-00012

Author Schmid, Katrina L.
Wildsoet, Christine F.
Title Inhibitory effects of apomorphine and atropine and their combination on myopia in chicks
Journal name Optometry And Vision Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1040-5488
Publication date 2004-02-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1097/00006324-200402000-00012
Volume 81
Issue 2
Start page 137
End page 147
Total pages 11
Editor Mark A. Bullimore
Place of publication Hagerstown, M.D, U.S.A.
Publisher Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
Language eng
Subject C1
321016 Opthalmology and Vision Science
730111 Hearing, vision, speech and their disorders
Formatted abstract
The inhibitory effect of apomorphine on form-deprivation myopia implies a role for dopaminergic pathways in eye growth; however, the effect of apomorphine on lens-induced changes has not been studied. Our study filled this deficiency. After establishing that apomorphine inhibited lens-induced myopia, we investigated whether apomorphine and atropine acted sequentially via the same control pathway or via different parallel pathways.


This study, conducted in 8-day-old chicks, was comprised of two parts: (1) a comparative study of apomorphine's effect on lens-induced myopia (-15 D), form-deprivation myopia (diffusers), and lens-induced hyperopia (+15 D) and (2) a study of the interacting effects of apomorphine and atropine on lens-induced myopia and form-deprivation myopia. in the first part, dH(2)O and six apomorphine doses (8 pmole to 800 nmole in log, 0 steps) were given as 10-muL intravitreal injections in combination with the above visual treatments. Apomorphine was used alone or given with atropine in the second part, which included four drug treatment groups: (1) control (dH(2)O); (2) 80 pmole of apomorphine; (3) 18 nmole of atropine; and (4) apomorphine + atropine. Additional dH(2)O injections were used to equalize the number of injections across groups. After 4.5 days of treatment, refractive errors and axial ocular dimensions were measured.

The myopic shifts and axial elongation typical of lens-induced myopia (-15 D lens wear) were inhibited to maxima of 43% (4.5 D) and 52% (0.17 mm) by apomorphine, which, in contrast, enhanced lens-induced hyperopia (refractive error: 114%, 1.55 D; axial length: 134%, 0.16 mm). Inhibitory effects of apomorphine on lens-induced myopia were observed at doses greater than or equal to80 pmole, whereas the doses required to enhance lens-induced hyperopia were 2 log(10) units higher. Only a weak inhibitory effect of apomorphine on form-deprivation myopia was observed. Although both apornorphine and atropine inhibited lens-induced myopia, atropine was slightly more effective for the doses compared (refractive error, 53% cf. 32%), and the effect of the combination was not significantly greater than that of atropine alone (refractive error, 59% cf. 53%).

Apomorphine inhibits both types of experimental myopia, which implies the involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in both phenomena; likewise, cholinergic mechanisms are indicated by the inhibitory effects of atropine on both lens-induced myopia and form-deprivation myopia. We speculate that apomorphine and atropine act at different sites on a common control pathway because the combined effect of apomorphine and atropine was no more than atropine alone.
Keyword Ophthalmology
Antimuscarinic Drugs
Form-deprivation Myopia
Induced Refractive Errors
Retinal-pigment Epithelium
Lens-induced Myopia
Receptor Antagonists
Eye Growth
Visual Experience
Dopamine Levels
Q-Index Code C1

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2005 Higher Education Research Data Collection
School of Biomedical Sciences Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 74 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 79 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 14:14:46 EST