Major Depressive Disorder, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicide Attempt in Twins Discordant for Cannabis Dependence and Early-Onset Cannabis Use

Lynskey, Michael T., Glowinski, Anne L., Todorov, Alexandr A., Bucholz, Kathleen K., Madden, Pamela A. F., Nelson, Elliot C., Statham, Dixie J., Martin, Nicholas G. and Heath, Andrew C. (2004) Major Depressive Disorder, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicide Attempt in Twins Discordant for Cannabis Dependence and Early-Onset Cannabis Use. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61 10: 1026-1032. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.10.1026

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Author Lynskey, Michael T.
Glowinski, Anne L.
Todorov, Alexandr A.
Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Madden, Pamela A. F.
Nelson, Elliot C.
Statham, Dixie J.
Martin, Nicholas G.
Heath, Andrew C.
Title Major Depressive Disorder, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicide Attempt in Twins Discordant for Cannabis Dependence and Early-Onset Cannabis Use
Journal name Archives of General Psychiatry   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0003-990X
Publication date 2004-10-01
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1001/archpsyc.61.10.1026
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
Volume 61
Issue 10
Start page 1026
End page 1032
Total pages 7
Editor J. T. Coyle
J. D. Barchas
Place of publication Chicago, IL, United States
Publisher American Medical Association
Language eng
Abstract Background: Previous research has reported both a moderate degree of comorbidity between cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder (MDD) and that early-onset cannabis use is associated with increased risks for MDD. Objective: To examine whether associations between both lifetime cannabis dependence and early cannabis use and measures of MDD, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt persist after controlling for genetic and/or shared environmental influences. Design: Cross-sectional survey of twin pairs discordant for lifetime cannabis dependence and those discordant for early cannabis use. Setting: General population sample of twins (median age, 30 years). Participants: Two hundred seventy-seven same-sex twin pairs discordant for cannabis dependence and 311 pairs discordant for early-onset cannabis use (before age 17 years). Main Outcome Measures: Self-report measures of DSM-IV-defined lifetime MDD, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt. Results: Individuals who were cannabis dependent had odds of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt that were 2.5 to 2.9 times higher than those of their non-cannabis-dependent co-twin. Additionally, cannabis dependence was associated with elevated risks of MDD in dizygotic but not in monozygotic twins. Those who initiated cannabis use before age 17 years had elevated rates of subsequent suicide attempt (odds ratio, 3.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6]) but not of MDD or suicidal ideation. Early MDD and suicidal ideation were significantly associated with subsequent risks of cannabis dependence in discordant dizygotic pairs but not in discordant monozygotic pairs. Conclusions: Comorbidity between cannabis dependence and MDD likely arises through shared genetic and environmental vulnerabilities predisposing to both outcomes. In contrast, associations between cannabis dependence and suicidal behaviors cannot be entirely explained by common predisposing genetic and/or shared environmental predispositions. Previously reported associations between early-onset cannabis use and subsequent MDD likely reflect shared genetic and environmental vulnerabilities, although it remains possible that early-onset cannabis use may predispose to suicide attempt.
Keyword Psychiatry
Substance Use Disorders
Alcohol Dependence
Marijuana Use
Q-Index Code C1
Grant ID AA011998
Institutional Status Non-UQ

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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 13:24:46 EST