Kinetic, mechanistic, structural and spectroscopic investigations of Bimetallic Metallohydrolases

Selleck, Christopher (2017). Kinetic, mechanistic, structural and spectroscopic investigations of Bimetallic Metallohydrolases PhD Thesis, School of Chemistry & Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland. doi:10.14264/uql.2017.1053

Attached Files (Some files may be inaccessible until you login with your UQ eSpace credentials)
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
s43426401_PhD_thesis.pdf Full text - (Open Access) application/pdf 6.26MB 0
Author Selleck, Christopher
Thesis Title Kinetic, mechanistic, structural and spectroscopic investigations of Bimetallic Metallohydrolases
School, Centre or Institute School of Chemistry & Molecular Biosciences
Institution The University of Queensland
DOI 10.14264/uql.2017.1053
Publication date 2017-11-03
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Gerhard Schenk
Language eng
Subjects 060112 Structural Biology (incl. Macromolecular Modelling)
060199 Biochemistry and Cell Biology not elsewhere classified
060101 Analytical Biochemistry
Formatted abstract
Binuclear Metallohydrolases (BMHs) are a vast family of enzymes that play crucial roles in numerous metabolic pathways. The overarching aim of this thesis is the investigation of the structure and mechanism of a series of related BMHs, with a range of physicochemical techniques, in order to provide essential insight into the development of specific inhibitors. Since an increasing number of BMHs have become targets for chemotherapeutic agents, such inhibitors may thus serve as suitable leads in drug development.

The general biochemical properties of BMHs is discussed in Chapter 1. Particular focus is on antibiotic-degrading metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), Zn2+-dependent enzymes that have emerged as a major threat to global health care due to their ability to inactivate most of the commonly used antibiotics. No clinically relevant inhibitors for these enzymes are currently available, exacerbating their negative impact on the treatment of infections. Also discussed are a range of phosphatases; while functionally distinct from MBLs, they employ a related mechanistic strategy to hydrolyse a broad range of phosphorylated substrates. Specifically, purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are also a useful target for novel chemotherapeutics to treat osteoporosis, while organophosphate (OP) pesticidedegrading enzymes have gained attention as biocatalysts for application in environmental remediation.

In Chapter 2 the trajectory and transition state of the PAP-catalysed reaction is investigated using a high-resolution crystal structure. Importantly, the inhibitor and substrate mimic phosphate is observed in two alternative conformations. When superimposed they describe a trigonal bipyramidal structure reminiscent of the proposed transition state. Hence, this study provides the first crystallographic insight into the transition state of a BMH-catalysed reaction and may thus guide transition state-based inhibitor designs.

In Chapter 3 the crystal structure of a fluoride-inhibited OP-degrading BMH, the OP-degrading enzyme from Agrobacterium radiobacter (OpdA) is described. The significance of this structure is that it highlights the significance of hydrogen bonding interactions in enhancing minor structural changes into significant functional differences. Specifically, we demonstrate that in the absence of  this hydrogen bond fluoride has no effect on enzyme performance, and illustrate that fluoride binding mediates long range effects that influence substrate binding and thus catalytic efficiency.

In Chapter 4 the crystal structures of two novel MBLs from the non-pathogenic marine microorganisms Novosphingobium pentaromativorans and Simiduia agarivorans (i.e. Maynooth ImiPenemase -1 and -2 (MIM-1 and MIM-2), respectively) are described. These enzymes were discovered in a database mining study and highlight that antibiotic-degrading activity is present in environments that are not specifically challenged by human activities. Both MIM-1 and MIM-2 are efficient MBLs, but are also acting as quorum-sensing enzymes by hydrolysing a range of lactone substrates. Their crystal structures demonstrate that the MBL active site can accommodate a range of diverse substrates. This observation may render the design of potent inhibitors more difficult as the active site may be flexible and/or too ill-defined to interact with a persistent and specific inhibitor.

In Chapter 5 the structural and functional flexibility of the MBL active site was further investigated with a range of kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. The focus of this study, Adelaide ImiPenemase 1 (AIM-1), is a pathogenic MBL isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The enzyme has two distinct options available for the hydrolysis of β-lactam substrates, distinguished by the identitiy of the rate-limiting step. This observation supports a model whereby the initial conformation of the bound substrate is rather flexible, thus providing an opportunity for the reaction to proceed in two alternative pathways. This flexibility may indeed be a useful strategy for the enzyme to remain dynamic with respect to its evolution. In essence, due to this flexibility AIM-1 may adapt to novel substrates quickly, exacerbating its role in spreading antibiotic resistance.

In Chapters 2 to 5 physico-chemical and structural properties of BMHs with diverse functions and substrate preferences have been discussed. In Chapter 6 it is demonstrated that the in-solution structures of a selection of BMHs (representing both phosphatases and MBLs) are indeed rather conserved. Specifically, the use of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) is a simple and informative technique to probe the coordination environments of BMHs. In Chapter 6 we utilise this technique to investigate CpsB, an emerging target for novel agents to combat antibiotic resistance, and the MBLlike proteins LRA-8, MIM-1 and MIM-2. All of which originate from environmental bacteria that are not associated with human disease (the crystal structures of MIM-1 and MIM-2 were described in Chapter 4). Co2+ was used as a paramagnetic probe for these MCD studies, facilitating a detailed comparison to related BMH and model systems. The spectroscopic data indicate that despite considerable functional/metabolic differences, numerous BMHs share close active site structural  similarity. Thus, the active site characteristic of numerous BMHs is characterised by functional plasticity that may allow at least some of these enzymes (i.e. MBLs) to adopt novel functions rapidly.

In summary, insights gained from this thesis may inform the design and development of potent inhibitors for BMHs that can be used as leads for novel chemotherapeutic strategies. Failure to do so in the near future presents grave dangers for the future of human health and the treatment of many human ailments. In Chapter 7 some recent initial studies are introduced which demonstrate several potent MBL inhibitors that are active against representatives from each of the three main groups of MBLs (i.e. the B1-, B2- and B3-subgroups). The study was also expanded to include preliminary data of a novel MBL-like enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium. The hope is that with further studies like the one presented in this thesis, will lead to positive outcomes for healthcare leading into the future.
Keyword organophosphate
binuclear metallohydrolase
magnetic circular dichroism
stopped-flow fluorescence
electron paramagnetic resonance
transitions state

Document type: Thesis
Collections: UQ Theses (RHD) - Official
UQ Theses (RHD) - Open Access
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Wed, 25 Oct 2017, 15:16:17 EST by Christopher Selleck on behalf of University of Queensland Graduate School