Review of grain refinement of cast metals through inoculation: theories and developments

Liu, Zhilin (2017) Review of grain refinement of cast metals through inoculation: theories and developments. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 48 10: 4755-4776. doi:10.1007/s11661-017-4275-7


Author Liu, Zhilin
Title Review of grain refinement of cast metals through inoculation: theories and developments
Journal name Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1073-5623
1543-1940
Publication date 2017-10-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s11661-017-4275-7
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 48
Issue 10
Start page 4755
End page 4776
Total pages 22
Place of publication New York, United States
Publisher Springer
Language eng
Subject 3104 Condensed Matter Physics
2211 Mechanics of Materials
2506 Metals and Alloys
Abstract The inoculation method of grain refinement is widely used in research and industry. Because of its commercial and engineering importance, extensive research on the mechanisms/theories of grain refinement and development of effective grain refiners for diverse cast metals/alloys has been conducted. In 1999, Easton and St. John reviewed the mechanisms of grain refinement of cast Al alloys. Since then, grain refinement in alloys of Al, Mg, Fe, Ti, Cu, and Zn has evolved a lot. However, there is still no full consensus on the mechanisms/theories of grain refinement. Moreover, some new grain refiners developed based on the theories do not ensure efficient grain refinement. Thus, the factors that contribute to grain refinement are still not fully understood. Clarification of the prerequisite issues that occur in grain refinement is required using recent theories. This review covers multiple metals/alloys and developments in grain refinement from the last twenty years. The characteristics of effective grain refiners are considered from four perspectives: effective particle/matrix wetting configuration, sufficiently powerful segregating elements, preferential crystallographic matching, and geometrical features of effective nucleants. Then, recent mechanisms/theories on the grain refinement of cast metals/alloys are reviewed, including the peritectic-related, hypernucleation, inert nucleant, and constitutional supercooling-driven theories. Further, developments of deterministic and probabilistic modeling and nucleation crystallography in the grain refinement of cast metals are reviewed. Finally, the latest progress in the grain refinement of cast Zn and its alloys is described, and future work on grain refinement is summarized.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID 51605496
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Mechanical & Mining Engineering Publications
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