Enter the dragon: the dynamic and multifunctional evolution of anguimorpha lizard venoms

Koludarov, Ivan, Jackson, Timothy N. W., op den Brouw, Bianca, Dobson, James, Dashevsky, Daniel, Arbuckle, Kevin, Clemente, Christofer J., Stockdale, Edward J., Cochran, Chip, Debono, Jordan, Stephens, Carson, Panagides, Nadya, Li, Bin, Manchadi, Mary-Louise Roy, Violette, Aude, Fourmy, Rudy, Hendrikx, Iwan, Nouwens, Amanda, Clements, Judith, Martelli, Paolo, Kwok, Hang Fai and Fry, Bryan G. (2017) Enter the dragon: the dynamic and multifunctional evolution of anguimorpha lizard venoms. Toxins, 9 8: . doi:10.3390/toxins9080242

Author Koludarov, Ivan
Jackson, Timothy N. W.
op den Brouw, Bianca
Dobson, James
Dashevsky, Daniel
Arbuckle, Kevin
Clemente, Christofer J.
Stockdale, Edward J.
Cochran, Chip
Debono, Jordan
Stephens, Carson
Panagides, Nadya
Li, Bin
Manchadi, Mary-Louise Roy
Violette, Aude
Fourmy, Rudy
Hendrikx, Iwan
Nouwens, Amanda
Clements, Judith
Martelli, Paolo
Kwok, Hang Fai
Fry, Bryan G.
Title Enter the dragon: the dynamic and multifunctional evolution of anguimorpha lizard venoms
Journal name Toxins   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2072-6651
Publication date 2017-08-01
Year available 2017
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.3390/toxins9080242
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 9
Issue 8
Total pages 93
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publisher MDPI AG
Language eng
Formatted abstract
While snake venoms have been the subject of intense study, comparatively little work has been done on lizard venoms. In this study, we have examined the structural and functional diversification of anguimorph lizard venoms and associated toxins, and related these results to dentition and predatory ecology. Venom composition was shown to be highly variable across the 20 species of Heloderma, Lanthanotus, and Varanus included in our study. While kallikrein enzymes were ubiquitous, they were also a particularly multifunctional toxin type, with differential activities on enzyme substrates and also ability to degrade alpha or beta chains of fibrinogen that reflects structural variability. Examination of other toxin types also revealed similar variability in their presence and activity levels. The high level of venom chemistry variation in varanid lizards compared to that of helodermatid lizards suggests that venom may be subject to different selection pressures in these two families. These results not only contribute to our understanding of venom evolution but also reveal anguimorph lizard venoms to be rich sources of novel bioactive molecules with potential as drug design and development lead compounds.
Keyword Venom
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

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