Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)

Brawley, Susan H., Blouin, Nicolas A., Ficko-Blean, Elizabeth, Wheeler, Glen L., Lohr, Martin, Goodson, Holly V., Jenkins, Jerry W., Blaby-Haas, Crysten E., Helliwell, Katherine E., Chan, Cheong Xin, Marriage, Tara N., Bhattacharya, Debashish, Klein, Anita S., Badis, Yacine, Brodie, Juliet, Cao, Yuanyu, Collén, Jonas, Dittami, Simon M., Gachon, Claire M. M., Green, Beverley R., Karpowicz, Steven J., Kim, Jay W., Kudahl, Ulrich Johan, Lin, Senjie, Michel, Gurvan, Mittag, Maria, Olson, Bradley J. S. C., Pangilinan, Jasmyn L., Peng, Yi, Qiu, Huan, Shu, Shenqiang, Singer, John T., Smith, Alison G., Sprecher, Brittany N., Wagner, Volker, Wang, Wenfei, Wang, Zhi-Yong, Yan, Juying, Yarish, Charles, Zäuner-Riek, Simone, Zhuang, Yunyun, Zou, Yong, Lindquist, Erika A., Grimwood, Jane, Barry, Kerrie W., Rokhsar, Daniel S., Schmutz, Jeremy, Stiller, John W., Grossman, Arthur R. and Prochnik, Simon E. (2017) Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114 31: E6361-E6370. doi:10.1073/pnas.1703088114


Author Brawley, Susan H.
Blouin, Nicolas A.
Ficko-Blean, Elizabeth
Wheeler, Glen L.
Lohr, Martin
Goodson, Holly V.
Jenkins, Jerry W.
Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.
Helliwell, Katherine E.
Chan, Cheong Xin
Marriage, Tara N.
Bhattacharya, Debashish
Klein, Anita S.
Badis, Yacine
Brodie, Juliet
Cao, Yuanyu
Collén, Jonas
Dittami, Simon M.
Gachon, Claire M. M.
Green, Beverley R.
Karpowicz, Steven J.
Kim, Jay W.
Kudahl, Ulrich Johan
Lin, Senjie
Michel, Gurvan
Mittag, Maria
Olson, Bradley J. S. C.
Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.
Peng, Yi
Qiu, Huan
Shu, Shenqiang
Singer, John T.
Smith, Alison G.
Sprecher, Brittany N.
Wagner, Volker
Wang, Wenfei
Wang, Zhi-Yong
Yan, Juying
Yarish, Charles
Zäuner-Riek, Simone
Zhuang, Yunyun
Zou, Yong
Lindquist, Erika A.
Grimwood, Jane
Barry, Kerrie W.
Rokhsar, Daniel S.
Schmutz, Jeremy
Stiller, John W.
Grossman, Arthur R.
Prochnik, Simon E.
Title Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)
Formatted title
Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)
Journal name Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1091-6490
0027-8424
Publication date 2017-08-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1703088114
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 114
Issue 31
Start page E6361
End page E6370
Total pages 10
Place of publication Washington, DC, United States
Publisher National Academy of Sciences
Language eng
Abstract Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in Porphyra are restricted to a small set of kinesins that appear to be the only universal cytoskeletal motors within the red algae. Dynein motors are absent, and most red algae, including Porphyra, lack myosin. This surprisingly minimal cytoskeleton offers a potential explanation for why red algal cells and multicellular structures are more limited in size than in most multicellular lineages. Additional discoveries further relating to the stress tolerance of bangiophytes include ancestral enzymes for sulfation of the hydrophilic galactan-rich cell wall, evidence for mannan synthesis that originated before the divergence of green and red algae, and a high capacity for nutrient uptake. Our analyses provide a comprehensive understanding of the red algae, which are both commercially important and have played a major role in the evolution of other algal groups through secondary endosymbioses.
Formatted abstract
Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in Porphyra are restricted to a small set of kinesins that appear to be the only universal cytoskeletal motors within the red algae. Dynein motors are absent, and most red algae, including Porphyra, lack myosin. This surprisingly minimal cytoskeleton offers a potential explanation for why red algal cells and multicellular structures are more limited in size than in most multicellular lineages. Additional discoveries further relating to the stress tolerance of bangiophytes include ancestral enzymes for sulfation of the hydrophilic galactan-rich cell wall, evidence for mannan synthesis that originated before the divergence of green and red algae, and a high capacity for nutrient uptake. Our analyses provide a comprehensive understanding of the red algae, which are both commercially important and have played a major role in the evolution of other algal groups through secondary endosymbioses.
Keyword Cytoskeleton
Calcium-signaling
Carbohydrate-active enzymes
Stress tolerance
Vitamin B12
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID P20 GM103418
P20 GM103638
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
Institute for Molecular Bioscience - Publications
 
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Created: Fri, 18 Aug 2017, 09:50:17 EST by Cheong Xin Chan on behalf of Institute for Molecular Bioscience