Phototoxicity of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides to coral

Jones, R. J. and Kerswell, A. (2003) Phototoxicity of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides to coral. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 261 149-159. doi:10.3354/meps261149


Author Jones, R. J.
Kerswell, A.
Title Phototoxicity of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides to coral
Journal name Marine Ecology Progress Series   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0171-8630
1616-1599
Publication date 2003-10-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.3354/meps261149
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 261
Start page 149
End page 159
Total pages 11
Editor Otto Kinne
Place of publication Oldendorf, Germany
Publisher Inter-research
Language eng
Abstract Recent reports of contamination of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park by herbicides used in antifouling paints and in agriculture have caused concern over the possible effects on corals in nearshore areas. Pulse-Amplitude Modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques were used to examine changes in the maximum effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm′) of symbiotic dinoflagellates within the host tissues (in hospite) of the coral Seriatopora hystrix exposed to a number of Photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicides in short-term toxicity tests. The concentration of herbicide required to reduce ΔF/Fm′ by 50% (median effective concentration [EC50]) differed by over 2 orders of magnitude: Irgarol 1051 (0.7 μg l-1) > ametryn (1.7 μg l-1) > diuron (2.3 μg l-1) > hexazinone (8.8 μg l -1) > atrazine (45 μg l-1) > simazine (150 μg l-1) > tebuthiuron (175 μg l-1) > ionynil (> 1 mg l-1). Similar absolute and relative toxicities were observed with colonies of the coral Acropora formosa (Irgarol 1051 EC50: 1.3 μg l-1, diuron EC50: 2.8 μg l-1), Time-course experiments indicated that ΔF/Fm′ was rapidly reduced (i.e. within minutes) in S. hystrix exposed to Irgarol 1051 and diuron. On return to fresh running seawater, ΔF/Fm′ recovered quickly in diuron-exposed corals (i.e. in minutes to hours), but slowly in corals exposed to Irgarol 1051 (i.e. hours to days). Time-course experiments indicated that the effects of diuron (3 μg l-1) on S. hystrix were inversely related to temperature over the range 20 to 30 °C, although initially the effects were less at the lower temperatures. Repeated exposure to pulses of Irgarol 1051 (daily 2 h exposure to 30 μg l -1 over 4 d) resulted in a 30% decrease in the density of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the tissues of S. hystrix.
Keyword Chlorophyll fluorescence
Coral
Coral bleaching
Diuron
Herbicide
Irgarol 1051
Symbiotic dinoflagellate
Q-Index Code C1

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: 2004 Higher Education Research Data Collection
Centre for Marine Studies Publications
 
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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 12:44:00 EST