Development of a novel titration and off-gas analysis (TOGA) sensor for study of biological processes in wastewater treatment systems

Pratt, Steven, Yuan, Zhiguo, Gapes, Daniel, Dorigo, Marco, Zeng, Raymond J. and Keller, Jurg (2003) Development of a novel titration and off-gas analysis (TOGA) sensor for study of biological processes in wastewater treatment systems. Biotechnology And Bioengineering, 81 4: 482-495. doi:10.1002/bit.10490

Author Pratt, Steven
Yuan, Zhiguo
Gapes, Daniel
Dorigo, Marco
Zeng, Raymond J.
Keller, Jurg
Title Development of a novel titration and off-gas analysis (TOGA) sensor for study of biological processes in wastewater treatment systems
Journal name Biotechnology And Bioengineering   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0006-3592
Publication date 2003-02-20
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1002/bit.10490
Volume 81
Issue 4
Start page 482
End page 495
Total pages 14
Editor D.S. Clark
Place of publication New York, U.S.
Publisher Wiley Interscience
Language eng
Subject C1
270399 Microbiology not elsewhere classified
770499 Other
0904 Chemical Engineering
Abstract The development of the new TOGA (titration and off-gas analysis) sensor for the detailed study of biological processes in wastewater treatment systems is outlined. The main innovation of the sensor is the amalgamation of titrimetric and off-gas measurement techniques. The resulting measured signals are: hydrogen ion production rate (HPR), oxygen transfer rate (OTR), nitrogen transfer rate (NTR), and carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR). While OTR and NTR are applicable to aerobic and anoxic conditions, respectively, HPR and CTR are useful signals under all of the conditions found in biological wastewater treatment systems, namely, aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic. The sensor is therefore a powerful tool for studying the key biological processes under all these conditions. A major benefit from the integration of the titrimetric and off-gas analysis methods is that the acid/base buffering systems, in particular the bicarbonate system, are properly accounted for. Experimental data resulting from the TOGA sensor in aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions demonstrates the strength of the new sensor. In the aerobic environment, carbon oxidation (using acetate as an example carbon source) and nitrification are studied. Both the carbon and ammonia removal rates measured by the sensor compare very well with those obtained from off-line chemical analysis. Further, the aerobic acetate removal process is examined at a fundamental level using the metabolic pathway and stoichiometry established in the literature, whereby the rate of formation of storage products is identified. Under anoxic conditions, the denitrification process is monitored and, again, the measured rate of nitrogen gas transfer (NTR) matches well with the removal of the oxidised nitrogen compounds (measured chemically). In the anaerobic environment, the enhanced biological phosphorus process was investigated. In this case, the measured sensor signals (HPR and CTR) resulting from acetate uptake were used to determine the ratio of the rates of carbon dioxide production by competing groups of microorganisms, which consequently is a measure of the activity of these organisms. The sensor involves the use of expensive equipment such as a mass spectrometer and requires special gases to operate, thus incurring significant capital and operational costs. This makes the sensor more an advanced laboratory tool than an on-line sensor. (C) 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keyword Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology
Off-gas Analysis
Biological Processes
Activated Sludge
Respirometric-titrimetric Measurements
Dioxide Evolution Rate
Activated sludge
Nitrification Kinetics
Q-Index Code C1

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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 03:27:53 EST