Anthropogenic and Natural Organohalogen Compounds in Blubber of Dolphins and Dugongs (Dugong dugon) from Northeastern Australia

Vetter, W., Scholz, E., Gaus, C., Müller, J. F. and Haynes, D. (2001) Anthropogenic and Natural Organohalogen Compounds in Blubber of Dolphins and Dugongs (Dugong dugon) from Northeastern Australia. Archives of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, 41 2: 221-231. doi:10.1007/s002440010241


Author Vetter, W.
Scholz, E.
Gaus, C.
Müller, J. F.
Haynes, D.
Title Anthropogenic and Natural Organohalogen Compounds in Blubber of Dolphins and Dugongs (Dugong dugon) from Northeastern Australia
Journal name Archives of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0090-4341
Publication date 2001-08-01
Year available 2001
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s002440010241
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 41
Issue 2
Start page 221
End page 231
Total pages 11
Place of publication New York
Publisher Springer-Verlag
Language eng
Subject C1
321299 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified
730210 Environmental health
Abstract A range of organohalogen compounds (10 polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] congeners, DDT and metabolites, chlordane-related compounds, the potential natural organochlorine compound Q1, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin, and several yet unidentified brominated compounds) were detected in the blubber of four bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), one common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), and seven dugongs (Dugong dugon), as well as in adipose tissue of a green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and a python (Morelia spilota) from northeast Queensland (Australia). The green turtle and dugongs accumulated lower organohalogen levels than the dolphins. Lower levels in dugongs were expected because this species is exclusively herbivorous. Highest PCB and DDT levels recorded in dugongs were 209 and 173 mug/kg lipids, respectively. Levels of the nonanthropogenic heptachlorinated compound Q1 (highest level in dugongs was 160 mug/kg lipids) were estimated using the ECD response factor of trans-nonachlor. Highest organohalogen levels were found in blubber of dolphins for sumDDT (575-52,500 mug/kg) and PCBs (600-25,500 mug/kg lipids). Furthermore, Q1 was a major organohalogen detected in all samples analyzed, ranging from 450 -9,100 mug/kg lipids. The highest concentration of Q1 determined in this study represents the highest concentration reported to date in an environmental sample. Levels of chlordane-related compounds were also high (280-7,700 mug/kg, mainly derived from trans-nonachlor), but concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin, and toxaphene were relatively low and contributed little to the overall organohalogen contamination. Furthermore, a series of three major (BC-1, BC-2, and BC-3) and six minor (BC-4 through BC-9) unknown brominated compounds were observable by extracting m/z 79 and m/z 81 from the GC/ECNI-MS full scan run. Structural proposals were made for the two major recalcitrant compounds (referred to as BC-1 and BC-2). BC-2 appears to be a tetrabromo-methoxy-diphenylether (512 u) and BC-1 has 14 u (corresponding with an additional CH2 group) more relative to BC-1. In general the organohalogen pattern observed in blubber of dolphins was different compared to similar samples from other locations in the world, which is apparent from the fact that the four major abundant signals in the GC/ECD chromatogram. of D. delphis originated from the four unknown compounds Q1, BC-1, BC-2, and BC-3.
Keyword Environmental Sciences
Toxicology
Microwave-assisted Extraction
Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
Persistent Organic Pollutants
Gel-permeation Chromatography
Polychlorinated-biphenyls
Environmental-samples
Chemical Residues
Organochlorine
Marine
Queensland
Q-Index Code C1
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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Created: Wed, 15 Aug 2007, 01:47:39 EST