The country‐level effects of drinking, heavy drinking and drink prices on pre‐drinking: an international comparison of 25 countries

Labhart, Florian, Ferris, Jason, Winstock, Adam and Kuntsche, Emmanuel (2017) The country‐level effects of drinking, heavy drinking and drink prices on pre‐drinking: an international comparison of 25 countries. Drug and Alcohol Review, 36 6: 742-750. doi:10.1111/dar.12525


Author Labhart, Florian
Ferris, Jason
Winstock, Adam
Kuntsche, Emmanuel
Title The country‐level effects of drinking, heavy drinking and drink prices on pre‐drinking: an international comparison of 25 countries
Journal name Drug and Alcohol Review   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0959-5236
1465-3362
Publication date 2017-03-13
Year available 2017
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/dar.12525
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 36
Issue 6
Start page 742
End page 750
Total pages 9
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Language eng
Subject 2701 Medicine (miscellaneous)
3306 Health (social science)
Abstract Introduction and Aims. The practice and adverse consequences of pre-drinking have been documented within a dozen countries, but little remains known about the differences between countries or the country-specific determinants of pre-drinking. This study aims to estimate the percentage of pre-drinkers in different countries and the impact of country-level indicators such as the price of alcohol and the prevalence of drinkers and of heavy drinkers. Design and Methods. Using data from the Global Drug Survey, the percentage of pre-drinkers was estimated for 25 countries from 65126 respondents. Bivariate and multivariate multilevel models were used to model the impact of the on-premise/off-premise drinks price ratio, the prevalence of current drinkers and of heavy drinkers on the percentage of pre-drinkers. Results. The estimated percentage of pre-drinkers per country ranged from 17.7% (Greece) to 85.4% (Ireland). Across all countries, the higher the prevalence of current drinkers, the higher the percentage of pre-drinkers. In addition, an interaction between the prevalence of heavy drinkers and the price ratio was found. In countries with a low price ratio, the higher the prevalence of heavy drinkers, the higher the percentage of pre-drinkers. The opposite effect was observed in countries with high price ratios. Discussion and Conclusions. Pre-drinking appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. The significant effects of all three indicators demonstrate the role of country-level determinants underpinning the prevalence of pre-drinking across countries. Policy makers could use the reported findings for initiating campaigns to reduce pre-drinking behaviour. [Labhart F, Ferris J, Winstock A, Kuntsche E. The country-level effects of drinking, heavy drinking and drink prices on pre-drinking: An international comparison of 25 countries.
Formatted abstract
Introduction and Aims: The practice and adverse consequences of pre-drinking have been documented within a dozen countries, but little remains known about the differences between countries or the country-specific determinants of pre-drinking. This study aims to estimate the percentage of pre-drinkers in different countries and the impact of country-level indicators such as the price of alcohol and the prevalence of drinkers and of heavy drinkers.

Design and Methods: Using data from the Global Drug Survey, the percentage of pre-drinkers was estimated for 25 countries from 65 126 respondents. Bivariate and multivariate multilevel models were used to model the impact of the on-premise/off-premise drinks price ratio, the prevalence of current drinkers and of heavy drinkers on the percentage of pre-drinkers.

Results: The estimated percentage of pre-drinkers per country ranged from 17.7% (Greece) to 85.4% (Ireland). Across all countries, the higher the prevalence of current drinkers, the higher the percentage of pre-drinkers. In addition, an interaction between the prevalence of heavy drinkers and the price ratio was found. In countries with a low price ratio, the higher the prevalence of heavy drinkers, the higher the percentage of pre-drinkers. The opposite effect was observed in countries with high price ratios.

Discussion and Conclusions: Pre-drinking appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. The significant effects of all three indicators demonstrate the role of country-level determinants underpinning the prevalence of pre-drinking across countries. Policy makers could use the reported findings for initiating campaigns to reduce pre-drinking behaviour.
Keyword Pre-drinking
Drinking culture
Prevalence
Cross-country comparison
Price
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID APP1089395
NWO-452-13-003
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Institute for Social Science Research - Publications
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Created: Sun, 19 Mar 2017, 15:07:36 EST by Jason Ferris on behalf of School of Social Science