Complex visual adaptations in squid for specific tasks in different environments

Chung, Wen-Sung and Marshall, N. Justin (2017) Complex visual adaptations in squid for specific tasks in different environments. Frontiers in Physiology, 8 FEB: 1-16. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00105


Author Chung, Wen-Sung
Marshall, N. Justin
Title Complex visual adaptations in squid for specific tasks in different environments
Journal name Frontiers in Physiology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1664-042X
Publication date 2017-02-24
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.3389/fphys.2017.00105
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 8
Issue FEB
Start page 1
End page 16
Total pages 16
Place of publication Lausanne, Switzerland
Publisher Frontiers Research Foundation
Language eng
Subject 1314 Physiology
2737 Physiology (medical)
Abstract In common with their major competitors, the fish, squid are fast moving visual predators that live over a great range of depths in the ocean. Both squid and fish show a variety of adaptations with respect to optical properties, receptors and their underlying neural circuits, and these adaptations are often linked to the light conditions of their specific niche. In contrast to the extensive investigations of adaptive strategies in fish, vision in response to the varying quantity and quality of available light, our knowledge of visual adaptations in squid remains sparse. This study therefore undertook a comparative study of visual adaptations and capabilities in a number of squid species collected between 0 and 1,200 m. Histology, magnetic resonance imagery (MRI), and depth distributions were used to compare brains, eyes, and visual capabilities, revealing that the squid eye designs reflect the lifestyle and the versatility of neural architecture in its visual system. Tubular eyes and two types of regional retinal deformation were identified and these eye modifications are strongly associated with specific directional visual tasks. In addition, a combination of conventional and immuno-histology demonstrated a new form of a complex retina possessing two inner segment layers in two mid-water squid species which they rhythmically move across a broad range of depths (50-1,000 m). In contrast to their relatives with the regular single-layered inner segment retina live in the upper mesopelagic layer (50-400 m), the new form of retinal interneuronal layers suggests that the visual sensitivity of these two long distance vertical migrants may increase in response to dimmer environments.
Keyword Complex squid retina
Dual-layered inner segment
Magnetic resonance imagery
Mid-water
Optic lobe
Retinal deformation
Signal convergence
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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