Efficacy of 400 mg efavirenz versus standard 600 mg dose in HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive adults (ENCORE1): A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial

Puls, Rebekah L., Amin, Janaki, Losso, Marcelo, Phanuphak, Praphan, Nwizu, Chidi, Orrell, Catherine, Young, Barnaby, Shahar, Eduardo, Wolff, Marcelo, Gazzard, Brian, Read, Tim, Hill, Andrew, Cooper, David A. and Emery, Sean (2014) Efficacy of 400 mg efavirenz versus standard 600 mg dose in HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive adults (ENCORE1): A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet, 383 9927: 1474-1482. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62187-X


Author Puls, Rebekah L.
Amin, Janaki
Losso, Marcelo
Phanuphak, Praphan
Nwizu, Chidi
Orrell, Catherine
Young, Barnaby
Shahar, Eduardo
Wolff, Marcelo
Gazzard, Brian
Read, Tim
Hill, Andrew
Cooper, David A.
Emery, Sean
Title Efficacy of 400 mg efavirenz versus standard 600 mg dose in HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive adults (ENCORE1): A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial
Journal name Lancet   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1474-547X
0140-6736
Publication date 2014-03-26
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62187-X
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 383
Issue 9927
Start page 1474
End page 1482
Total pages 9
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher The Lancet Publishing Group
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background
The optimum dose of key antiretroviral drugs is often overlooked during product development. The ENCORE1 study compared the efficacy and safety of reduced dose efavirenz with standard dose efavirenz in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine as first-line treatment for HIV infection. An effective and safe reduced dose could yield meaningful cost savings.

Methods
ENCORE1 is a continuing non-inferiority trial in HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naive adults in 38 clinical sites in 13 countries. Participants (plasma HIV-RNA >1000 log10 copies per mL, CD4 T-cell count 50–500 cells per μL) were randomly assigned by a computer-generated sequence with a blocking factor of four (stratified by clinical site and by screening viral load) to receive tenofovir plus emtricitabine with either a reduced daily dose (400 mg) or a standard dose (600 mg) of efavirenz. Participants, physicians, and all other trial staff were masked to treatment group. The primary endpoint was the difference in proportions of participants with plasma HIV-RNA of less than 200 copies per mL at 48 weeks. Treatment groups were regarded as non-inferior if the lower limit of the 95% CI for the difference in viral load was less than −10% by modified intention-to-treat analysis. Adverse events were summarised by treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01011413.

Findings
The modified intention-to-treat analysis consisted of 630 patients (efavirenz 400=321; efavirenz 600=309). 32% were women; 37% were African, 33% were Asian, and 30% were white. The mean baseline CD4 cell count was 273 cells per μL (SD 99) and median plasma HIV-RNA was 4·75 log10 copies per mL (IQR 0·88). The proportion of participants with a viral load below 200 copies per mL at week 48 was 94·1% for efavirenz 400 mg and 92·2% for 600 mg (difference 1·85%, 95% CI −2·1 to 5·79). CD4 T-cell counts at week 48 were significantly higher for the 400 mg group than for the 600 mg group (mean difference 25 cells per μL, 95% CI 6–44; p=0·01). We recorded no difference in grade or number of patients reporting adverse events (efavirenz 400=89·1%, efavirenz 600=88·4%; difference 0·75%, 95% CI −4·19 to 5·69; p=0·77). Study drug-related adverse events were significantly more frequent in the 600 mg group than in the 400 mg group (146% [47] vs 118 [37]), difference −10·5%, 95% CI −18·2 to −2·8; p=0·01) and significantly fewer patients with these events stopped treatment (400 mg=6 [2%], 600 mg=18 [6%], difference −3·96%, 95% CI −6·96 to −0·95; p=0·01).

Interpretation
Our findings suggest that a reduced dose of 400 mg efavirenz is non-inferior to the standard dose of 600 mg, when combined with tenofovir and emtricitabine during 48 weeks in ART-naive adults with HIV-1 infection. Adverse events related to the study drug were more frequent with 600 mg efavirenz than with 400 mg. Lower dose efavirenz should be recommended as part of routine care.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Medicine Publications
 
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