On binary scaling and ground-to-flight extrapolation in high-enthalpy facilities

de Crombrugghe de Looringhe, Guerric Arwid (2017). On binary scaling and ground-to-flight extrapolation in high-enthalpy facilities PhD Thesis, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland. doi:10.14264/uql.2017.456

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Author de Crombrugghe de Looringhe, Guerric Arwid
Thesis Title On binary scaling and ground-to-flight extrapolation in high-enthalpy facilities
School, Centre or Institute School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering
Institution The University of Queensland
DOI 10.14264/uql.2017.456
Publication date 2017-03-27
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Richard G. Morgan
Timothy J. McIntyre
Olivier Chazot
Total pages 276
Total colour pages 39
Total black and white pages 237
Language eng
Subjects 090107 Hypersonic Propulsion and Hypersonic Aerodynamics
Formatted abstract
The binary scaling law is commonly used to study the aerothermodynamics of hypersonic vehicles in high-enthalpy facilities. It enables the duplication of the shock layer in the vicinity of the stagnation point, including binary chemistry and nonequilibrium processes, through the reproduction of the Peclet and wall Damkohler numbers. These are both conserved through the duplication of the composition of the gas, the free-stream enthalpy h and the product of a density and a length-scale of the flow ρL.

Binary scaling is built on the assumption of a flow devoid of radiation coupling and governed by binary reactions. These two conditions drastically narrow down the envelope of flows for which binary scaling can be used. Moreover, diffusive transport and wall chemistry have never been addressed although they can have an important impact on the wall heat flux.

The first part of this thesis consists in an effort to better understand the theoretical role and effect of the different assumptions done to build the binary scaling. It is first shown that diffusive transport and wall chemistry should scale appropriately. Second, that non-binary chemistry will cause the shock layer in the laboratory flow to be hotter and less dissociated. A methodology is proposed to identify clearly what free-stream conditions will affect the least the flow variables of interest. Lastly, that radiation coupling will be weaker in the laboratory flow than in flight, causing the enthalpy contained in the shock layer to be greater in the laboratory flow.

These findings are verified in the second part with two experiments.

The first experiment was performed in the Plasmatron plasma wind tunnel at the von Karman Institute, Belgium. Binary scaled boundary layers were obtained for flows where diffusion and wall chemistry contribute significantly to the heat flux. The stagnation point heat fluxes were measured and exhibit a good agreement with the theoretical scaling law. This also validates the use of the binary scaling law in subsonic high-enthalpy facilities.

The second experiment was performed in the X2 expansion tube at the Centre for Hypersonics, Australia. Three flows were obtained over cylinders of different radii, adapting the free-stream density according to the binary scaling law. The free-stream conditions were determined in order to ensure a significant radiative coupling. Its effect could clearly be identified through measurements of the shock standoff distance, stagnation point heat flux, and shock layer radiation. A new method, based on a mix of experiments, computational fluid dynamics, and informed use of engineering correlations is proposed to perform ground to flight extrapolation for cases for which the radiative coupling is non-negligible.
Keyword Hypersonics
Fluid
Entry
Binary
Scaling
Similitude
High-enthalpy
High-temperature
Ground-to-flight
Venus
Additional Notes Pages that should be printed in colour: 45, 62, 86-89, 91, 124-125, 127-128, 138, 141, 143, 152-154, 164, 166, 171, 173, 175, 185-187, 216, 218, 222, 239-240, 246, 250, 252, 257, 259, 261-263, 269,

Document type: Thesis
Collections: UQ Theses (RHD) - Official
UQ Theses (RHD) - Open Access
 
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Created: Fri, 17 Mar 2017, 17:02:46 EST by Guerric Arwid De Crombrugghe De Looringhe on behalf of Learning and Research Services (UQ Library)