Role of exosomes in placental homeostasis and pregnancy disorders

Salomon, C. and Rice, G. E. (2017) Role of exosomes in placental homeostasis and pregnancy disorders. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 145 163-179. doi:10.1016/bs.pmbts.2016.12.006


Author Salomon, C.
Rice, G. E.
Title Role of exosomes in placental homeostasis and pregnancy disorders
Journal name Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1878-0814
1877-1173
ISBN 9780128093276
Publication date 2017-01-16
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2016.12.006
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 145
Start page 163
End page 179
Total pages 17
Place of publication Maryland Heights, MO, United States
Publisher Academic Press
Language eng
Abstract The human placenta is a unique organ that performs the function of the majority of fetal organs across gestation. How the placenta communicates with maternal tissues to prepare them for pregnancy is not fully understood. Recently, it has been established that placental cells can communicate with maternal tissues to regulate their biological function via extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are subclassified into exosomes or microvesicles (MVs) according to their size, cell or tissue of origin, functions, and physical features. Exosomes are a specific type of EVs from an endocytic origin, while MVs are released via budding from the plasma membrane. With regards to pregnancy, the role of EVs has been described in several functions such as immune responses and maternal metabolic adaptation to gestation. Interestingly, EVs of placental origin can be detected in a variety of body fluids including urine and blood, and have been identified in the maternal circulation at as early as 6 weeks of gestation. Moreover, the number of exosomes across gestation is higher in complications of pregnancies such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus compared to normal pregnancies. Circulating exosomes contains proteins and RNAs that are representative of the cell of origin, including surface and cytoplasmic protein, messenger RNA, and micro-RNAs. Finally, exosomes are capable of transferring their contents to other cells and regulating the biological function of the target cell. In this review, we will discuss the effect of the maternal microenvironment on secretion and content of placenta-derived EVs, and how this may lead to complications of pregnancies with a special emphasis on exosomes.
Keyword Cytokines
Exosomes
Extracellular vesicles
Gestational diabetes
Placenta
Preeclampsia
Pregnancy
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: UQ Centre for Clinical Research Publications
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