Origin and evolution of the metazoan non-coding regulatory genome

Gaiti, Federico, Calcino, Andrew D., Tanurdzic, Miloš and Degnan, Bernard M. (2016) Origin and evolution of the metazoan non-coding regulatory genome. Developmental Biology, 427 2: 193-202. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.11.013

Author Gaiti, Federico
Calcino, Andrew D.
Tanurdzic, Miloš
Degnan, Bernard M.
Title Origin and evolution of the metazoan non-coding regulatory genome
Journal name Developmental Biology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1095-564X
Publication date 2016-11-20
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.11.013
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 427
Issue 2
Start page 193
End page 202
Total pages 10
Place of publication Maryland Heights, MO, United States
Publisher Academic Press
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Animals rely on genomic regulatory systems to direct the dynamic spatiotemporal and cell-type specific gene expression that is essential for the development and maintenance of a multicellular lifestyle. Although it is widely appreciated that these systems ultimately evolved from genomic regulatory mechanisms present in single-celled stem metazoans, it remains unclear how this occurred. Here, we focus on the contribution of the non-coding portion of the genome to the evolution of animal gene regulation, specifically on recent insights from non-bilaterian metazoan lineages, and unicellular and colonial holozoan sister taxa. High-throughput next-generation sequencing, largely in bilaterian model species, has led to the discovery of tens of thousands of non-coding RNA genes (ncRNAs), including short, long and circular forms, and uncovered the central roles they play in development. Based on the analysis of non-bilaterian metazoan, unicellular holozoan and fungal genomes, the evolution of some ncRNAs, such as Piwi-interacting RNAs, correlates with the emergence of metazoan multicellularity, while others, including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs, appear to be more ancient. Analysis of non-coding regulatory DNA and histone post-translational modifications have revealed that some cis-regulatory mechanisms, such as those associated with proximal promoters, are present in non-animal holozoans, while others appear to be metazoan innovations, most notably distal enhancers. In contrast, the cohesin-CTCF system for regulating higher-order chromatin structure and enhancer-promoter long-range interactions appears to be restricted to bilaterians. Taken together, most bilaterian non-coding regulatory mechanisms appear to have originated before the divergence of crown metazoans. However, differential expansion of non-coding RNA and cis-regulatory DNA repertoires in bilaterians may account for their increased regulatory and morphological complexity relative to non-bilaterians.
Keyword Cis-regulation
Gene regulation
Non-coding RNAs
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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School of Biological Sciences Publications
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