Predictors of vitamin D status in New Zealand preschool children

Cairncross, C.T., Stonehouse, W., Conlon, C. A., Grant, C. C., McDonald, B., Houghton, L. A., Eyles, Darryl, Camargo Jr, C. A., Coad, J. and von Hurst, P. R. (2016) Predictors of vitamin D status in New Zealand preschool children. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 13 3: . doi:10.1111/mcn.12340

Author Cairncross, C.T.
Stonehouse, W.
Conlon, C. A.
Grant, C. C.
McDonald, B.
Houghton, L. A.
Eyles, Darryl
Camargo Jr, C. A.
Coad, J.
von Hurst, P. R.
Title Predictors of vitamin D status in New Zealand preschool children
Journal name Maternal and Child Nutrition   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1740-8695
Publication date 2016-01-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/mcn.12340
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 13
Issue 3
Total pages 12
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Language eng
Abstract Vitamin D deficiency has adverse health effects in young children. Our aims were to determine predictors of vitamin D status and then to use these factors to develop a practical tool to predict low 25(OH)D concentrations in preschool New Zealand children. A cross-sectional sample of 1329 children aged 2 to <5 years were enrolled from throughout New Zealand in late-winter to spring 2012. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured on dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected using finger-prick sampling. Caregivers completed a questionnaire. Mean (SD) DBS 25(OH)D concentration was 52(19)nmol/L. 25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L was present in 86(7%), 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L in 642(48%), 25(OH)D 50- < 75 nmol/L in 541(41%) and 25(OH)D > 75 nmol/L in 146(11%) of children. Factors independently associated with the risk of 25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L were female gender (OR 1.92,95%CI 1.17–3.14), other non-European ethnicities (not including Māori or Pacific) (3.51,1.89–6.50), had olive-dark skin colour (4.52,2.22–9.16), did not take vitamin D supplements (2.56,1.06–6.18), had mothers with less than secondary-school qualifications (5.00,2.44–10.21) and lived in more deprived households (1.27,1.06–1.53). Children who drank toddler milk (vitamin D fortified cow's milk formula marketed to young children) had a zero risk of 25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L. The predictive tool identified children at risk of 25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L with sensitivity 42%, specificity 97% and ROC area-under-curve 0.76(95%CI 0.67–0.86, p < 0.001). Predictors of low vitamin D status were consistent with those identified in previous studies of New Zealand children. The tool had insufficient predictive ability for use in clinical situations, and suggests a need to promote safe, inexpensive testing to determine vitamin D status in preschool children.
Keyword Vitamin D deficiency
New Zealand
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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Queensland Brain Institute Publications
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Created: Thu, 24 Nov 2016, 02:57:29 EST by Kirstie Asmussen on behalf of School of Music