One-step method to prepare starch-based superabsorbent polymer for slow release of fertilizer

Xiao, Xiaoming, Yu, Long, Xie, Fengwei, Bao, Xianyang, Liu, Hongsheng, Ji, Zhili and Chen, Ling (2017) One-step method to prepare starch-based superabsorbent polymer for slow release of fertilizer. Chemical Engineering Journal, 309 607-616. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2016.10.101

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Author Xiao, Xiaoming
Yu, Long
Xie, Fengwei
Bao, Xianyang
Liu, Hongsheng
Ji, Zhili
Chen, Ling
Title One-step method to prepare starch-based superabsorbent polymer for slow release of fertilizer
Journal name Chemical Engineering Journal   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1385-8947
1873-3212
Publication date 2017-02-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.cej.2016.10.101
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 309
Start page 607
End page 616
Total pages 10
Place of publication Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier BV
Language eng
Subject 1600 Chemistry
2304 Environmental Chemistry
1500 Chemical Engineering
2209 Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Abstract Here we report the use of a one-step process of reactive melt mixing to prepare starch-based superabsorbent polymers (SBSAPs) for the slow release of urea as a fertilizer. A modified twin-rotor mixer, with improved sealing to establish an oxygen-free environment, was used to study the chemical and physical reactions during the melt-processing through monitoring the temperature and torque. The effects of the initiator (ceric ammonium nitrate, or CAN), crosslinker (N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide, or N,N′-MBA) and saponification agent (NaOH) under different reaction conditions (time, temperature, and shear intensity) were systematically studied. Also investigated was the effect of starch with different amylose content. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that using this simple technique, SBSAPs were successfully prepared from either high-amylopectin starch (waxy corn starch) or high-amylose starch (Gelose 50) grafted with AM and crosslinked by N,N′-MBA. Gel strength was evaluated by rheometry, which revealed a significant increase in storage modulus (G′) obtained in the crosslinked high-amylose SBSAP gels. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed a more sophisticated structural network with a smaller pore size in the crosslinked high-amylose gels. Urea as a fertilizer was embedded in the SBSAP gel network, and this network controlled the urea release in water. The release rate of urea depended on the gel strength, gel microstructure and water absorption capacity (WAC) of SAP, which was affected by the reaction conditions and degree of saponification.
Formatted abstract
Here we report the use of a one-step process of reactive melt mixing to prepare starch-based superabsorbent polymers (SBSAPs) for the slow release of urea as a fertilizer. A modified twin-rotor mixer, with improved sealing to establish an oxygen-free environment, was used to study the chemical and physical reactions during the melt-processing through monitoring the temperature and torque. The effects of the initiator (ceric ammonium nitrate, or CAN), crosslinker (N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide, or N,N′-MBA) and saponification agent (NaOH) under different reaction conditions (time, temperature, and shear intensity) were systematically studied. Also investigated was the effect of starch with different amylose content. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that using this simple technique, SBSAPs were successfully prepared from either high-amylopectin starch (waxy corn starch) or high-amylose starch (Gelose 50) grafted with AM and crosslinked by N,N′-MBA. Gel strength was evaluated by rheometry, which revealed a significant increase in storage modulus (G′) obtained in the crosslinked high-amylose SBSAP gels. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed a more sophisticated structural network with a smaller pore size in the crosslinked high-amylose gels. Urea as a fertilizer was embedded in the SBSAP gel network, and this network controlled the urea release in water. The release rate of urea depended on the gel strength, gel microstructure and water absorption capacity (WAC) of SAP, which was affected by the reaction conditions and degree of saponification.
Keyword Fertilizer slow-release
Gel strength
Reactive mixing
Starch
Superabsorbent polymer
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID 31130042
31571789
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Chemical Engineering Publications
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