The burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to major modifiable risk factors in Indonesia

Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar, Al Mamun, Abdullah, Peters, Sanne A. E., Woodward, Mark and Huxley, Rachel R. (2016) The burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to major modifiable risk factors in Indonesia. Journal of Epidemiology, 26 10: 515-521. doi:10.2188/jea.JE20150178

Author Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar
Al Mamun, Abdullah
Peters, Sanne A. E.
Woodward, Mark
Huxley, Rachel R.
Title The burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to major modifiable risk factors in Indonesia
Journal name Journal of Epidemiology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0917-5040
Publication date 2016-10-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.2188/jea.JE20150178
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 26
Issue 10
Start page 515
End page 521
Total pages 7
Place of publication Fukuoka, Japan
Publisher Japan Epidemiological Association
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight.

Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (<55 and ≥55 years) from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region.

Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20%–25% of all CHD and 36%–42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes). However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors.

Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.
Keyword Population attributable risk
Risk factors
Attributable risk
Non-communicable diseases
Cardiovascular diseases
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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