Long-term outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Erskine, Holly E., Norman, Rosana E., Ferrari, Alize J., Chan, Gary C.K., Copeland, William E., Whiteford, Harvey A. and Scott, James G. (2016) Long-term outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55 10: 841-850. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.06.016


Author Erskine, Holly E.
Norman, Rosana E.
Ferrari, Alize J.
Chan, Gary C.K.
Copeland, William E.
Whiteford, Harvey A.
Scott, James G.
Title Long-term outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal name Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1527-5418
0890-8567
Publication date 2016-10-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.06.016
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 55
Issue 10
Start page 841
End page 850
Total pages 10
Place of publication Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier BV
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common externalizing disorders. Despite previous research demonstrating that both are longitudinally associated with adverse outcomes, there have been no systematic reviews examining all of the available evidence linking ADHD and CD with a range of health and psychosocial outcomes.

Method: Electronic databases (EMBASE, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched for studies published from 1980 up to March 2015. Published cohort and case-control studies were included if they reported a longitudinal association between ADHD or CD and adverse outcomes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Outcomes with sufficient data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis to give overall odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% CIs.

Results: Of the 278 studies assessed, 114 met inclusion criteria and 98 were used in subsequent meta-analyses. ADHD was associated with adverse outcomes including academic achievement (e.g. failure to complete high school; odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% CIs 2.0−7.0), other mental and substance use disorders (e.g. depression; OR = 2.3, 1.5−3.7), criminality (e.g. arrest; OR = 2.4, 1.5−3.8), and employment (e.g., unemployment; OR = 2.0, 1.0−3.9). CD was associated with outcomes relating to academic achievement (e.g. failure to complete high school; OR = 2.7, 1.5−4.7), other mental and substance use disorders (e.g., illicit drug use; OR = 2.1, 1.7−2.6), and criminality (e.g. violence; OR = 3.5, 2.3−5.3).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that ADHD and CD are associated with disability beyond immediate health loss. Although the analyses could not determine the mechanisms behind these longitudinal associations, they demonstrate the importance of addressing ADHD and CD early in life so as to potentially avert a wide range of future adverse outcomes.
Keyword Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Conduct disorder
Epidemiology
Longitudinal
Outcomes
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: UQ Centre for Clinical Research Publications
HERDC Pre-Audit
Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research Publications
School of Public Health Publications
Admin Only - UQCCR
 
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