Concurrent reflectance confocal microscopy and laser doppler flowmetry to improve skin cancer imaging: a Monte Carlo model and experimental validation

Mowla, Alireza, Taimre, Thomas, Lim, Yah Leng, Bertling, Karl, Wilson, Stephen J., Prow, Tarl W., Soyer, H. Peter and Rakic, Aleksandar D. (2016) Concurrent reflectance confocal microscopy and laser doppler flowmetry to improve skin cancer imaging: a Monte Carlo model and experimental validation. Sensors, 16 9: . doi:10.3390/s16091411


Author Mowla, Alireza
Taimre, Thomas
Lim, Yah Leng
Bertling, Karl
Wilson, Stephen J.
Prow, Tarl W.
Soyer, H. Peter
Rakic, Aleksandar D.
Title Concurrent reflectance confocal microscopy and laser doppler flowmetry to improve skin cancer imaging: a Monte Carlo model and experimental validation
Journal name Sensors   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1424-8220
1424-8239
Publication date 2016-09-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.3390/s16091411
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 16
Issue 9
Total pages 19
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publisher M D P I AG
Language eng
Abstract Optical interrogation of suspicious skin lesions is standard care in the management of skin cancer worldwide. Morphological and functional markers of malignancy are often combined to improve expert human diagnostic power. We propose the evaluation of the combination of two independent optical biomarkers of skin tumours concurrently. The morphological modality of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is combined with the functional modality of laser Doppler flowmetry, which is capable of quantifying tissue perfusion. To realize the idea, we propose laser feedback interferometry as an implementation of RCM, which is able to detect the Doppler signal in addition to the confocal reflectance signal. Based on the proposed technique, we study numerical models of skin tissue incorporating two optical biomarkers of malignancy: (i) abnormal red blood cell velocities and concentrations and (ii) anomalous optical properties manifested through tissue confocal reflectance, using Monte Carlo simulation. We also conduct a laboratory experiment on a microfluidic channel containing a dynamic turbid medium, to validate the efficacy of the technique. We quantify the performance of the technique by examining a signal to background ratio (SBR) in both the numerical and experimental models, and it is shown that both simulated and experimental SBRs improve consistently using this technique. This work indicates the feasibility of an optical instrument, which may have a role in enhanced imaging of skin malignancies.
Keyword Laser Doppler flowmetry
Laser feedback interferometry
Monte Carlo modelling
Reflectance confocal microscopy
Skin cancer detection
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID DP160103910
Institutional Status UQ

 
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