Prevention of muscle wasting and osteoporosis: the value of examining novel animal models

Reilly, Beau D. and Franklin, Craig E. (2016) Prevention of muscle wasting and osteoporosis: the value of examining novel animal models. Journal of Experimental Biology, 219 17: 2582-2595. doi:10.1242/jeb.128348

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Author Reilly, Beau D.
Franklin, Craig E.
Title Prevention of muscle wasting and osteoporosis: the value of examining novel animal models
Journal name Journal of Experimental Biology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0022-0949
1477-9145
Publication date 2016-09-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1242/jeb.128348
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
Volume 219
Issue 17
Start page 2582
End page 2595
Total pages 14
Place of publication Cambridge, United Kingdom
Publisher The Company of Biologists
Language eng
Abstract Bone mass and skeletal muscle mass are controlled by factors such as genetics, diet and nutrition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli. Whereas increased mechanical loading of the musculoskeletal system stimulates an increase in the mass and strength of skeletal muscle and bone, reduced mechanical loading and disuse rapidly promote a decrease in musculoskeletal mass, strength and ultimately performance (i.e. muscle atrophy and osteoporosis). In stark contrast to artificially immobilised laboratory mammals, animals that experience natural, prolonged bouts of disuse and reduced mechanical loading, such as hibernating mammals and aestivating frogs, consistently exhibit limited or no change in musculoskeletal performance. What factors modulate skeletal muscle and bone mass, and what physiological and molecular mechanisms protect against losses of muscle and bone during dormancy and following arousal Understanding the events that occur in different organisms that undergo natural periods of prolonged disuse and suffer negligible musculoskeletal deterioration could not only reveal novel regulatory factors but also might lead to new therapeutic options. Here, we review recent work from a diverse array of species that has revealed novel information regarding physiological and molecular mechanisms that dormant animals may use to conserve musculoskeletal mass despite prolonged inactivity. By highlighting some of the differences and similarities in musculoskeletal biology between vertebrates that experience disparate modes of dormancy, it is hoped that this Review will stimulate new insights and ideas for future studies regarding the regulation of atrophy and osteoporosis in both natural and clinical models of muscle and bone disuse.
Keyword Aestivation
Apoptosis
Hibernation
Immobilisation
Protein synthesis
Sclerostin
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
School of Biological Sciences Publications
 
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