Cross-sectional biomonitoring study of pesticide exposures in Queensland, Australia, using pooled urine samples

Heffernan, A. L., English, K., Toms, L. M. L., Calafat, A. M., Valentin-Blasini, L., Hobson, P., Broomhall, S., Ware, R. S., Jagals, P., Sly, P. D. and Mueller, J. F. (2016) Cross-sectional biomonitoring study of pesticide exposures in Queensland, Australia, using pooled urine samples. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23 23: 1-13. doi:10.1007/s11356-016-7571-7


Author Heffernan, A. L.
English, K.
Toms, L. M. L.
Calafat, A. M.
Valentin-Blasini, L.
Hobson, P.
Broomhall, S.
Ware, R. S.
Jagals, P.
Sly, P. D.
Mueller, J. F.
Title Cross-sectional biomonitoring study of pesticide exposures in Queensland, Australia, using pooled urine samples
Journal name Environmental Science and Pollution Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1614-7499
0944-1344
Publication date 2016-09-10
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s11356-016-7571-7
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 23
Issue 23
Start page 1
End page 13
Total pages 13
Place of publication Heidelberg, Germany
Publisher Springer
Language eng
Abstract A range of pesticides are available in Australia for use in agricultural and domestic settings to control pests, including organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, and insect repellents, such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). The aim of this study was to provide a cost-effective preliminary assessment of background exposure to a range of pesticides among a convenience sample of Australian residents. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n = 24 pools of 100 specimens). Concentrations of urinary pesticide biomarkers were quantified using solid-phase extraction coupled with isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean biomarker concentrations ranged from < 0.1 to 36.8 ng/mL for organophosphate insecticides, < 0.1 to 5.5 ng/mL for pyrethroid insecticides, and < 0.1 to 8.51 ng/mL for all other biomarkers with the exception of the DEET metabolite 3-diethylcarbamoyl benzoic acid (4.23 to 850 ng/mL). We observed no association between age and concentration for most biomarkers measured but noted a "U-shaped" trend for five organophosphate metabolites, with the highest concentrations observed in the youngest and oldest age strata, perhaps related to age-specific differences in behavior or physiology. The fact that concentrations of specific and non-specific metabolites of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos were higher than reported in USA and Canada may relate to differences in registered applications among countries. Additional biomonitoring programs of the general population and focusing on vulnerable populations would improve the exposure assessment and the monitoring of temporal exposure trends as usage patterns of pesticide products in Australia change over time.
Formatted abstract
A range of pesticides are available in Australia for use in agricultural and domestic settings to control pests, including organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, and insect repellents, such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). The aim of this study was to provide a cost-effective preliminary assessment of background exposure to a range of pesticides among a convenience sample of Australian residents. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n = 24 pools of 100 specimens). Concentrations of urinary pesticide biomarkers were quantified using solid-phase extraction coupled with isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean biomarker concentrations ranged from <0.1 to 36.8 ng/mL for organophosphate insecticides, <0.1 to 5.5 ng/mL for pyrethroid insecticides, and <0.1 to 8.51 ng/mL for all other biomarkers with the exception of the DEET metabolite 3-diethylcarbamoyl benzoic acid (4.23 to 850 ng/mL). We observed no association between age and concentration for most biomarkers measured but noted a “U-shaped” trend for five organophosphate metabolites, with the highest concentrations observed in the youngest and oldest age strata, perhaps related to age-specific differences in behavior or physiology. The fact that concentrations of specific and non-specific metabolites of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos were higher than reported in USA and Canada may relate to differences in registered applications among countries. Additional biomonitoring programs of the general population and focusing on vulnerable populations would improve the exposure assessment and the monitoring of temporal exposure trends as usage patterns of pesticide products in Australia change over time.
Keyword Biomonitoring
Children
Organophosphate
Pesticides
Pyrethroid
Urine
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID APP1106911
DE120100161
Institutional Status UQ

 
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