Refining the excretion factors of methadone and codeine for wastewater analysis - combining data from pharmacokinetic and wastewater studies

Thai, Phong K., Lai, Foon Yin, Bruno, Raimondo, van Dyken, Emma, Hall, Wayne, O'Brien, Jake, Prichard, Jeremy and Mueller, Jochen F. (2016) Refining the excretion factors of methadone and codeine for wastewater analysis - combining data from pharmacokinetic and wastewater studies. Environment International, 94 307-314. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.05.033


Author Thai, Phong K.
Lai, Foon Yin
Bruno, Raimondo
van Dyken, Emma
Hall, Wayne
O'Brien, Jake
Prichard, Jeremy
Mueller, Jochen F.
Title Refining the excretion factors of methadone and codeine for wastewater analysis - combining data from pharmacokinetic and wastewater studies
Journal name Environment International   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1873-6750
0160-4120
Publication date 2016-09-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.envint.2016.05.033
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 94
Start page 307
End page 314
Total pages 8
Place of publication Kidlington, Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon Press
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Analysing drug residues in wastewater (wastewater analysis) to monitor the consumption of those drugs in the population has become a complementary method to epidemiological surveys. In this method, the excretion factor of a drug (or the percentage of drug metabolites excreted through urine) is a critical parameter for the back-estimation of the consumption of a drug. However, this parameter is usually derived from a small database of human pharmacokinetic studies. This is true for methadone and codeine, the two most commonly used opioids and also common substances of abuse. Therefore, we aimed to refine the current excretion factors used for estimating methadone and codeine by analysing published data from the literature on the excretion of methadone, its main metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and codeine. Our review included both human drug pharmacokinetic studies and wastewater analysis studies. We found that while the commonly used excretion factor of methadone (~. 27.5%) was relatively accurate, the excretion factor of EDDP, a better biomarker for methadone consumption in sewer epidemiology, should be twice that of methadone (i.e. 55%) instead of the current equal or half values. For codeine, the excretion factor should be ~. 30% instead of 63.5% or 10% as previously used in wastewater analysis studies. Data from wastewater analysis studies could be used in this way to refine the excretion factors of the drugs of interest.
Keyword Drug abuse
EDDP
Misuse
Opioids
Sewer epidemiology
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

 
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