The bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders

McGrath, John J., Saha, Sukanta, Al-Hamzawi, Ali, Andrade, Laura, Benjet, Corina, Bromet, Evelyn J., Browne, Mark Oakley, Caldas de Almeida, Jose M., Chiu, Wai Tat, Demyttenaere, Koen, Fayyad, John, Florescu, Silvia, de Girolamo, Giovanni, Gureje, Oye, Haro, Josep Maria, ten Have, Margreet, Hu, Chiyi, Kovess-Masfety, Viviane, Lim, Carmen C. W., Navarro-Mateu, Fernando, Sampson, Nancy, Posada-Villa, José, Kendler, Kenneth S. and Kessler, Ronald C. (2016) The bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173 10: 997-1006. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15101293


Author McGrath, John J.
Saha, Sukanta
Al-Hamzawi, Ali
Andrade, Laura
Benjet, Corina
Bromet, Evelyn J.
Browne, Mark Oakley
Caldas de Almeida, Jose M.
Chiu, Wai Tat
Demyttenaere, Koen
Fayyad, John
Florescu, Silvia
de Girolamo, Giovanni
Gureje, Oye
Haro, Josep Maria
ten Have, Margreet
Hu, Chiyi
Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
Lim, Carmen C. W.
Navarro-Mateu, Fernando
Sampson, Nancy
Posada-Villa, José
Kendler, Kenneth S.
Kessler, Ronald C.
Title The bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders
Journal name American Journal of Psychiatry   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0002-953X
Publication date 2016-10-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15101293
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 173
Issue 10
Start page 997
End page 1006
Total pages 10
Place of publication Arlington, VA, United States
Publisher American Psychiatric Publishing
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Objective: While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of psychotic experiences and mental disorders. Using data from World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys, the authors assessed the bidirectional temporal associations between psychotic experiences and mental disorders.

Method: The WMH Surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of psychotic experiences and 21 commonDSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries. Discrete-time survival models were used to examine
bivariate and multivariate associations between psychotic experiences and mental disorders.

Results: Temporally primary psychotic experiences were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of eight of the21
mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, adult separation anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, and alcohol abuse), with odds ratios ranging from 1.3 (95% CI=1.2–1.5) for major depressive disorder to 2.0 (95% CI=1.5–2.6) for bipolar disorder. In contrast, 18 of 21 primary mental disorders were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of psychotic experiences, with odds ratios ranging from 1.5 (95% CI=1.0–2.1) for childhood separation anxiety disorder to 2.8 (95% CI=1.0–7.8) for anorexia nervosa.

Conclusions: While temporally primary psychotic experiences are associated with an elevated risk of several subsequent
mental disorders, these data show that most mental disorders are associated with an elevated risk of subsequent psychotic experiences. Further investigation of the underlying factors accounting for these time-order relationships may shed light on the etiology of psychotic experiences.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
Queensland Brain Institute Publications
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Created: Tue, 27 Sep 2016, 00:17:35 EST by Kirstie Asmussen on behalf of School of Music