A strange result in the measurement of the angles of arrival of the first and second echoes from the ionosphere at high radio frequencies

From W.R., MacGibbon J. and Whitehead J.D. (1989) A strange result in the measurement of the angles of arrival of the first and second echoes from the ionosphere at high radio frequencies. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 51 3: 223-231. doi:10.1016/0021-9169(89)90103-7


Author From W.R.
MacGibbon J.
Whitehead J.D.
Title A strange result in the measurement of the angles of arrival of the first and second echoes from the ionosphere at high radio frequencies
Journal name Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics
ISSN 0021-9169
Publication date 1989-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/0021-9169(89)90103-7
Volume 51
Issue 3
Start page 223
End page 231
Total pages 9
Subject 1902 Film, Television and Digital Media
1908 Geophysics
Abstract Angles of arrival of first echoes (those directly reflected from the ionosphere) and second echoes (those twice reflected from the ionosphere with an intermediate reflection from the ground) were measured. It is easy to show that under specified conditions the off-vertical angle of arrival of the second echo ought to be twice that of the first echo. It is consistently found to be less than this for much of the time. Several possibilities are canvassed, but none provide a convincing explanation. The place on the Earth from which the second echo was reflected was nearly always the sea or flat ground. Apparently, rapid phase variations, as the tilt of the ionosphere changed, prevented recognition of the second echo by this particular radar system for echoes reflected from rough terrain.
Q-Index Code C1
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Scopus Import - Archived
 
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