Speeds and gaits of dinosaurs

Thulborn R.A. (1982) Speeds and gaits of dinosaurs. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 38 3-4: 227-256. doi:10.1016/0031-0182(82)90005-0

Author Thulborn R.A.
Title Speeds and gaits of dinosaurs
Journal name Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0031-0182
Publication date 1982-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/0031-0182(82)90005-0
Volume 38
Issue 3-4
Start page 227
End page 256
Total pages 30
Language eng
Subject 1911 Palaeontology
Abstract The known relationships of speed, gait and body size (derived mainly from mammals) are used to determine the gaits and theoretical maximum speeds of dinosaurs. Speed estimates are made for 62 dinosaurs (representing 51 genera) and are supplemented with information from comparative anatomy and from dinosaur trackways. It is concluded that smaller bipedal dinosaurs were capable of running at speeds up to 35 or 40 km/h. The so-called "ostrich dinosaurs" are credited with maximum speeds less than 60 km/h, and possibly as low as 35 or 40 km/h. Larger bipedal dinosaurs were probably restricted to walking or slow trotting gaits, with maximum speeds in the range 15-20 km/h. Most quadrupedal dinosaurs seem to have been restricted to a walking gait. Stegosaurs and ankylosaurs may have had maximum speeds as low as 6-8 km/h. Sauropods may have attained 12-17 km/h, and some ceratopsians may have been capable of trotting at speeds up to 25 km/h. On a weight-for-weight basis the speeds of dinosaurs are generally lower than those of mammals.
Q-Index Code C1
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Scopus Import
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 61 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 66 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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