Are sons and daughters treated more differently by fathers than by mothers?

Siegal M. (1987) Are sons and daughters treated more differently by fathers than by mothers?. Developmental Review, 7 3: 183-209. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(87)90012-8

Author Siegal M.
Title Are sons and daughters treated more differently by fathers than by mothers?
Journal name Developmental Review   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0273-2297
Publication date 1987-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/0273-2297(87)90012-8
Volume 7
Issue 3
Start page 183
End page 209
Total pages 27
Subject 3204 Developmental and Educational Psychology
3205 Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
3304 Education
Abstract According to reciprocal role theory, the father's socialization behavior promotes sex-typing in children. While sex-typing is encouraged by both parents, the father makes a greater differentiation between sons and daughters. In this article, the research on differential socialization behavior is reviewed. Some studies have used multiple measures of parent-child interaction and often only a few of these have revealed differences related to the sex of the parent. However, as indicated both in a qualitative review of the literature and in a meta-analysis, results that are significant provide a modest degree of support for father-specific socialization behaviors. In 20 of 39 independent published studies, the father's ratings or treatment of boys and girls differed significantly. By contrast, the differences for mothers, if present at all, were comparatively few in any of the studies. The pattern of father-specific effects was most evident in the area of discipline and physical involvement and was weak in the areas of affection and everyday speech with infants and toddlers. Research on children's perceptions of parental socialization behavior is consistent with the existence of differential socialization practices used by the father in particular. Reciprocal role theory is discussed in terms of influences on parent-child interaction with regard to traditional and nontraditional family arrangements. Further research using within-family designs is required to examine fathers' differential treatment in the context of changing family and work roles.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 152 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 151 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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