Correlates of new psychoactive substance use among a self-selected sample of nightclub attendees in the United States

Palamar, Joseph J., Barratt, Monica J., Ferris, Jason A. and Winstock, Adam R. (2016) Correlates of new psychoactive substance use among a self-selected sample of nightclub attendees in the United States. American Journal On Addictions, 25 5: 400-407. doi:10.1111/ajad.12403


Author Palamar, Joseph J.
Barratt, Monica J.
Ferris, Jason A.
Winstock, Adam R.
Title Correlates of new psychoactive substance use among a self-selected sample of nightclub attendees in the United States
Journal name American Journal On Addictions   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1055-0496
1521-0391
Publication date 2016-08-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/ajad.12403
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 25
Issue 5
Start page 400
End page 407
Total pages 8
Place of publication Hoboken, NJ, United States
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background and Objectives: Although new psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge at a rapid rate, US national surveys only measure the use of non-specific categories of NPS and are not designed to access high-risk populations. In this paper we report lifetime use of specific NPS (of 58) and examine correlates of use among a high-risk population: nightlife attendees.
Methods: The self-selected sample from the Global Drug Survey (2013) consisted of 2,282 respondents in the US, aged 16–60 years, who reported nightclub attendance in the last year. Multivariable logistic regression models determined unique predictors of lifetime use.
Results: Lifetime use of a wide range of NPS was reported (any NPS; 46.4%), including synthetic cannabinoids (24.8%), tryptamines (eg, 4-AcO-DMT, 23.0%), psychedelic phenethylamines (eg, 2C-B, 25I-NBOMe; 21.7%), euphoric stimulants (eg, BenzoFury; 16.2%), and synthetic cathinones (eg, methylone; 10.5%). Females (AOR = 0.49 [.41, .60]) and older respondents (age 22–60; AOR = .73 [.59, .89]) were at lower odds of reporting any lifetime NPS use. Frequent nightclub attendance was associated with increased odds of reporting lifetime NPS use overall (eg, weekly compared with less than once a month, AOR = 2.33 [1.70,3.19]), but not specifically with synthetic cannabinoid use.
Discussion and Conclusions: Among a self-selected sample of nightclub attendees, a large range of novel substances were reported, and young attendees, males, and those who attended more frequently were at increased odds of reporting use.
Scientific Significance: Harm reduction initiatives are needed to reduce risk of harm in this population, where environmental characteristics may augment risks associated with consuming lesser-known psychoactive substances.
Keyword Nationally representative sample
High school seniors
New York City
Drug use
Ecstasy use
Hidden populations
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Institute for Social Science Research - Publications
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