Es-layer characteristics determined from spaced ionosondes

Goodwin G.L. and Summers R.N. (1970) Es-layer characteristics determined from spaced ionosondes. Planetary and Space Science, 18 10: 1417-1432. doi:10.1016/0032-0633(70)90116-9

Author Goodwin G.L.
Summers R.N.
Title Es-layer characteristics determined from spaced ionosondes
Journal name Planetary and Space Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0032-0633
Publication date 1970-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/0032-0633(70)90116-9
Volume 18
Issue 10
Start page 1417
End page 1432
Total pages 16
Language eng
Subject 1908 Geophysics
1912 Space and Planetary Science
3103 Astronomy and Astrophysics
Abstract An analysis was made of ionograms recorded for approximately 1900 hr during 12 months with an average of six ionosonde receivers distributed over an area of some 700 km2. The Es-layer characteristics (measured by f{hook}Es, and f{hook}bEs) remained essentially constant for onethird of the time during which Es, was recorded. Changes in Es characteristics for two-thirds of the time were practically all ascribed to the movements of small-scale Es 'frontal' irregularities during the day-time, but at night a large minority of the changes was attributed to the formation and dissipation of Es-layers having horizontal dimensions of the order of a few hundred km. Changes in f{hook}Es, could not be ascribed to the movement of Es-layer 'edges'. The small-scale 'frontal' irregularities, which produced 'range-spreading' of Es echoes, consisted apparently of 'ridges' and 'troughs' of enhanced and diminished Es electron density respectively. Velocities of horizontal motion of the irregularities were estimated from the time delays between the occurrences of maxima or minima in f{hook}Es, or f{hook}bEs recorded on the various spaced ionograms. Irregularity 'wave-lengths' were generally 10-40 km.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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