The effects of monolayers on the evaporation of liquids

Barnes G.T. (1986) The effects of monolayers on the evaporation of liquids. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 25 C: 89-200. doi:10.1016/0001-8686(86)80004-5


Author Barnes G.T.
Title The effects of monolayers on the evaporation of liquids
Journal name Advances in Colloid and Interface Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0001-8686
Publication date 1986-01-01
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/0001-8686(86)80004-5
Volume 25
Issue C
Start page 89
End page 200
Total pages 112
Subject 1505 Marketing
1606 Political Science
3110 Surfaces and Interfaces
Abstract The evaporation rate of a liquid is determined, inter alia, by its equilibrium vapour pressure and by the actual pressure of vapour just above the surface. The relationship between these properties, the Hertz-Knudsen equation, can be deduced from the kinetic theory of gases. The evaporation coefficient, long used as a correction factor in this relationship, has been shown by recent experiments of Hickman, Maa, Schulze, and Cammenga to be unity, provided the equilibrium vapour pressure used in the Hertz-Knudsen equation is the value for the surface of the liquid. Difficulties in determining the surface temperature, and hence the vapour pressure, have led to values of the evaporation coefficient less than unity. It is also essential that the liquid surface be clean. Minute quantities of contamination on the surface can inhibit the convective transfer of heat through the liquid to the surface, and this can lower the evaporation rate. Certain monolayers, when spread on a liquid surface, can reduce the evaporation rate of the liquid. In some situations this reduction can be partly attributed to reduced heat transfer by convection, but often the monolayer itself can impede evaporation. This property is conveniently described by an evaporation resistance. Monolayers in condensed surface states usually have significant evaporation resistances, but there are some important exceptions. The resistance depends on molecular architecture, temperature, surface pressure and carbon chain length. Treatment of evaporation resistance in terms of an energy or free energy barrier to evaporation describes most of the experimental data, but attempts to predict resistance values have had little success. A postulate that evaporation is restricted to those parts of the surface not obstructed by monolayer molecules, the accessible area, has led to successful predictions of some aspects of evaporation resistance. However, there is, as yet, no comprehensive theory of evaporation resistance: indeed, some experimental observations can not be explained by any of the current theories.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collection: Scopus Import
 
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