Chlorinated paraffins in the environment: a review on their production, fate, levels and trends between 2010 and 2015

van Mourik, Louise M., Gaus, Caroline, Leonards, Pim E. G. and de Boer, Jacob (2016) Chlorinated paraffins in the environment: a review on their production, fate, levels and trends between 2010 and 2015. Chemosphere, 155 415-428. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.04.037


Author van Mourik, Louise M.
Gaus, Caroline
Leonards, Pim E. G.
de Boer, Jacob
Title Chlorinated paraffins in the environment: a review on their production, fate, levels and trends between 2010 and 2015
Journal name Chemosphere   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1879-1298
0045-6535
Publication date 2016-07-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.04.037
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 155
Start page 415
End page 428
Total pages 14
Place of publication Kidlington, Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon Press
Language eng
Formatted abstract
This review provides an update on information regarding the production volumes, regulations, as well as the environmental levels, trends, fate and human exposure to chlorinated paraffin mixtures (CPs). CPs encompas thousands congeners with varying properties and environmental fate. Based on their carbon chain lengths, CPs are divided into short- (SCCPs; C10-13), medium- (MCCPs; C14-17) and long- (LCCPs; C ≥ 18) chained groups. They are high production volume and persistent chemicals, and their cumulative global production already surpasses that of other persistent anthropogenic chemicals (e.g. PCBs). However, international regulations are still curbed by insufficient information on their levels and fate, including bioaccumulation and toxicity potential. An increasing number of studies since 2010 demonstrate that CPs are detected in almost every compartment in the environment, including remote areas. Consensus on the long range transport and high bioaccumulation potential (BCF > 5000 & TMF > 1) has recently been reached for SCCPs, fulfilling criteria under the Stockholm Convention for designation as a persistent organic pollutant; information on their levels is, however, still sparse for many countries. M/LCCPs have received comparatively little attention in the past, but as replacement chemicals for SCCPs, MCCPs are now considered in an increasing number of studies. The limited data to date suggests MCCPs are widely used. Although data on their bioaccumulation and toxicity are still inconclusive, MCCPs and LCCPs with C<20 may also have a bioaccumulation potential. Considering this and their high production volumes, use, and ubiquitous occurrence in the environment, a better understanding on the levels and fate of all CPs is needed.
Keyword Bioaccumulation
Chlorinated paraffin (CP)
Environmental fate
Environmental levels
Polychlorinated-n-alkane (PCA)
Production
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 13 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 14 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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