Maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy, fetal growth patterns, and risks of adverse birth outcomes

Miliku, Kozeta, Vinkhuyzen, Anna, Blanken, Laura M. E., McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W., Burne, Thomas H., Hofman, Albert, Tiemeier, Henning, Steegers, Eric A. P., Gaillard, Romy and Jaddoe, Vincent W. V. (2016) Maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy, fetal growth patterns, and risks of adverse birth outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103 6: 1514-1522. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.123752

Author Miliku, Kozeta
Vinkhuyzen, Anna
Blanken, Laura M. E.
McGrath, John J.
Eyles, Darryl W.
Burne, Thomas H.
Hofman, Albert
Tiemeier, Henning
Steegers, Eric A. P.
Gaillard, Romy
Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.
Title Maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy, fetal growth patterns, and risks of adverse birth outcomes
Journal name American Journal of Clinical Nutrition   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1938-3207
Publication date 2016-06-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.3945/ajcn.115.123752
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 103
Issue 6
Start page 1514
End page 1522
Total pages 9
Place of publication Bethesda, MD, United States
Publisher American Society for Nutrition
Language eng
Subject 2701 Medicine (miscellaneous)
2916 Nutrition and Dietetics
Abstract Background: Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may affect fetal outcomes.
Formatted abstract
Background: Maternal Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may affect fetal outcomes.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in pregnancy affect fetal growth patterns and birth outcomes.

Design: This was a population-based prospective cohort in Rotterdam, Netherlands in 7098 mothers and their offspring. We measured 25(OH)D concentrations at a median gestational age of 20.3 wk (range: 18.5-23.3 wk). Vitamin D concentrations were analyzed continuously and in quartiles. Fetal head circumference and body length and weight were estimated by repeated ultrasounds, and preterm birth (gestational age <37 wk) and small size for gestational age (less than the fifth percentile) were determined.

Results: Adjusted multivariate regression analyses showed that, compared with mothers with second-trimester 25(OH)D concentrations in the highest quartile, those with 25(OH)D concentrations in the lower quartiles had offspring with third-trimester fetal growth restriction, leading to a smaller head circumference, shorter body length, and lower body weight at birth (all P < 0.05). Mothers who had 25(OH)D concentrations in the lowest quartile had an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.60) and children who were small for gestational age (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.33, 3.22). The estimated population attributable risk of 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/L for preterm birth or small size for gestational age were 17.3% and 22.6%, respectively. The observed associations were not based on extreme 25(OH)D deficiency, but presented within the common ranges.

Conclusions: Low maternal 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with proportional fetal growth restriction and with an increased risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth. Further studies are needed to investigate the causality of these associations and the potential for public health interventions.
Keyword 25(OH)D
Birth weight
Fetal growth
Preterm birth
Small-size for gestational age
Vitamin D
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID APP1062846
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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