Wheat PR-1 proteins are targeted by necrotrophic pathogen effector proteins

Breen, Susan, Williams, Simon J., Winterberg, Britta, Kobe, Bostjan and Solomon, Peter S. (2016) Wheat PR-1 proteins are targeted by necrotrophic pathogen effector proteins. Plant Journal, 88 1: 13-25. doi:10.1111/tpj.13228

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Author Breen, Susan
Williams, Simon J.
Winterberg, Britta
Kobe, Bostjan
Solomon, Peter S.
Title Wheat PR-1 proteins are targeted by necrotrophic pathogen effector proteins
Journal name Plant Journal   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1365-313X
0960-7412
Publication date 2016-10-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/tpj.13228
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 88
Issue 1
Start page 13
End page 25
Total pages 13
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell
Language eng
Abstract Recent studies have identified that proteinaceous effectors secreted by Parastagonospora nodorum are required to cause disease on wheat. These effectors interact in a gene-for-gene manner with host-dominant susceptibilty loci, resulting in disease. However, whilst the requirement of these effectors for infection is clear, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. A yeast-two-hybrid library approach was used to search for wheat proteins that interacted with the necrotrophic effector SnTox3. Using this strategy we indentified an interaction between SnTox3 and the wheat pathogenicity-related protein TaPR-1-1, and confirmed it by in-planta co-immunprecipitation. PR-1 proteins represent a large family (23 in wheat) of proteins that are upregulated early in the defence response; however, their function remains ellusive. Interestingly, the P. nodorum effector SnToxA has recently been shown to interact specifically with TaPR-1-5. Our analysis of the SnTox3-TaPR-1 interaction demonstrated that SnTox3 can interact with a broader range of TaPR-1 proteins. Based on these data we utilised homology modeling to predict, and validate, regions on TaPR-1 proteins that are likely to be involved in the SnTox3 interaction. Precipitating from this work, we identified that a PR-1-derived defence signalling peptide from the C-terminus of TaPR-1-1, known as CAPE1, enhanced the infection of wheat by P. nodorum in an SnTox3-dependent manner, but played no role in ToxA-mediated disease. Collectively, our data suggest that P. nodorum has evolved unique effectors that target a common host-protein involved in host defence, albeit with different mechanisms and potentially outcomes.
Formatted abstract
Recent studies have identified that proteinaceous effectors secreted by Parastagonospora nodorum are required to cause disease on wheat. These effectors interact in a gene-for-gene manner with host-dominant susceptibilty loci, resulting in disease. However, whilst the requirement of these effectors for infection is clear, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. A yeast-two-hybrid library approach was used to search for wheat proteins that interacted with the necrotrophic effector SnTox3. Using this strategy we indentified an interaction between SnTox3 and the wheat pathogenicity-related protein TaPR-1-1, and confirmed it by in-planta co-immunprecipitation. PR-1 proteins represent a large family (23 in wheat) of proteins that are upregulated early in the defence response; however, their function remains ellusive. Interestingly, the P. nodorum effector SnToxA has recently been shown to interact specifically with TaPR-1-5. Our analysis of the SnTox3–TaPR-1 interaction demonstrated that SnTox3 can interact with a broader range of TaPR-1 proteins. Based on these data we utilised homology modeling to predict, and validate, regions on TaPR-1 proteins that are likely to be involved in the SnTox3 interaction. Precipitating from this work, we identified that a PR-1-derived defence signalling peptide from the C-terminus of TaPR-1-1, known as CAPE1, enhanced the infection of wheat by P. nodorum in an SnTox3-dependent manner, but played no role in ToxA-mediated disease. Collectively, our data suggest that P. nodorum has evolved unique effectors that target a common host-protein involved in host defence, albeit with different mechanisms and potentially outcomes.
Keyword Parastagonospora nodorum
Effectors
PR-1
Wheat
Necrotrophic pathogens
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID DP120100685
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
Institute for Molecular Bioscience - Publications
 
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Created: Fri, 10 Jun 2016, 19:56:22 EST by Mrs Louise Nimwegen on behalf of School of Chemistry & Molecular Biosciences