Vaccines for domestic animals

Opdebeeck, Johanna Patricia (1994). Vaccines for domestic animals PhD Thesis, School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland. doi:10.14264/uql.2016.430

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Author Opdebeeck, Johanna Patricia
Thesis Title Vaccines for domestic animals
School, Centre or Institute School of Veterinary Science
Institution University of Queensland
DOI 10.14264/uql.2016.430
Publication date 1994-01-01
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Keith Hughes
Total pages 539
Language eng
Subjects 0707 Veterinary Sciences
Formatted abstract

Antibody concentrations are extremely low in bovine milk; the total immunoglobulin content of milk is about 2% of that found in serum (Norcross,1982). At the time I started on research for my Ph.D. no simple sensitive assay was available to measure antibodies in the milk of lactating cows and the immune response in the lactating bovine mammary gland to microbial insult was understood poorly. Engvall and Perlmann (1972) revolutionised serology when they developed a sensitive, rapid inexpensive and safe assay, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to measure antibodies in serum. The ELISA uses an anti-species antibody conjugated with an enzyme which promotes a colour change in it's substrate to identify and measure the primary union between antibodies and antigens. I adapted the ELISA for the first time to measure antibodies in bovine milk (1.1). Antibodies against staphylococal alpha haemolysin were still detected by this assay in the milk of lactating cows 84 days after injection with a staphylococcal cell-toxoid preparation. It is significant that antibodies could not be detected by the standard haemolytic assay used at that time. I used this ELISA to measure antibodies in milk as a consequence of different vaccination procedures; this work included studies on the effect of the dose of somatic and secreted staphylococcal and streptococcal antigens (1.2 & 1.3) and the comparative effect of 4 adjuvants (aluminium hydroxide gel; Freund's incomplete adjuvant; a metabolizable lipid emulsion; and Bordetella pertussis ) on antibodies present in the milk of lactating cows (1.4). The cross-reactivity of staphylococcal and streptococcal bacterins and the possibility that antigens from either bacterium in a composite bacterin could act as an immunopotentiating agent for the other organism was also studied (1.5). No evidence of either immunopotentiation or cross-reactivity was found; equally important there was no evidence of antigenic competition between the 2 organisms. I was invited in 1982 to review the status of knowledge on immunity in the mammary gland of animals and people and was also invited to present a paper on the same subject at the Colloquium on Clinical Immunology , held in Chicago in 1982 by the American Veterinary Medical Association. Publications 1.1., 1.2., 1.4. and 1.5. are based on work which I submitted for my Ph.D. degree at Cornell University.  ..............................................
Keyword Vaccines
Veterinary pharmacology

Document type: Thesis
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