Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants

Di Cesare, Mariachiara, Bentham, James, Stevens, Gretchen A., Zhou, Bin, Danaei, Goodarz, Lu, Yuan, Bixby, Honor, Cowan, Melanie J., Riley, Leanne M., Hajifathalian, Kaveh, Fortunato, Lea, Taddei, Cristina, Bennett, James E., Ikeda, Nayu, Khang, Young-Ho, Kyobutungi, Catherine, Laxmaiah, Avula, Li, Yanping, Lin, Hsien-Ho, Miranda, J. Jaime, Mostafa, Aya, Turley, Maria L., Paciorek, Christopher J., Gunter, Marc, Ezzati, Majid, Abdeen, Ziad A., Hamid, Zargar Abdul, Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M., Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin, Adams, Robert, Aekplakorn, Wichai, Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A., Ahmadvand, Alireza, Ahrens, Wolfgang, Ali, Mohamed M., Alkerwi, Ala'a, Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar, Aly, Eman, Amouyel, Philippe, Amuzu, Antoinette, Andersen, Lars Bo, Anderssen, Sigmund A., Andrade, Dolores S., Anjana, Ranjit Mohan, Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer, Ariansen, Inger, Aris, Tahir, Arlappa, Nimmathota, Arveiler, Dominique, Assah, Felix K., Avdicova, Maria, Azizi, Fereidoun, Babu, Bontha V., Balakrishna, Nagalla, Bandosz, Piotr, Banegas, Jose R., Barbagallo, Carlo M., Barcelo, Alberto, Barkat, Amina, Barros, Mauro V., Bata, Iqbal, Batieha, Anwar M., Batista, Rosangela L., Baur, Louise A., Beaglehole, Robert, Ben Romdhane, Habiba, Benet, Mikhail, Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio, Bernotiene, Gailute, Bettiol, Heloisa, Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor, Bharadwaj, Sumit, Bhargava, Santosh K., Bhatti, Zaid, Bhutta, Zulfiqar A., Bi, HongSheng, Bi, Yufang, Bjerregaard, Peter, Bjertness, Espen, Bjertness, Marius B., Bjorkelund, Cecilia, Blake, Margaret, Blokstra, Anneke, Bo, Simona, Bobak, Martin, Boddy, Lynne M., Boehm, Bernhard O., Boeing, Heiner, Boissonnet, Carlos P., Bongard, Vanina, Bovet, Pascal, Braeckman, Lutgart, Bragt, Marjolijn C. E., Brajkovich, Imperia, Branca, Francesco, Breckenkamp, Juergen, Brenner, Hermann, Brewster, Lizzy M., Brian, Garry R., Bruno, Graziella, Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as), Bugge, Anna, Burns, Con, Cabrera de Leon, Antonio, Cacciottolo, Joseph, Cama, Tilema, Cameron, Christine, Camolas, Jose, Can, Gunay, Candido, Ana Paula C., Capuano, Vincenzo, Cardoso, Viviane C., Carvalho, Maria J., Casanueva, Felipe F., Casas, Juan-Pablo, Caserta, Carmelo A., Castetbon, Katia, Chamukuttan, Snehalatha, Chan, Angelique W., Chan, Queenie, Chaturvedi, Himanshu K., Chaturvedi, Nishi, Chen, Chien-Jen, Chen, Fangfang, Chen, Huashuai, Chen, Shuohua, Chen, Zhengming, Cheng, Ching-Yu, Chetrit, Angela, Chiolero, Arnaud, Chiou, Shu-Ti, Chirita-Emandi, Adela, Cho, Yumi, Christensen, Kaare, Chudek, Jerzy, Cifkova, Renata, Claessens, Frank, Clays, Els, Concin, Hans, Cooper, Cyrus, Cooper, Rachel, Coppinger, Tara C., Costanzo, Simona, Cottel, Dominique, Cowell, Chris, Craig, Cora L., Crujeiras, Ana B., D'Arrigo, Graziella, d'Orsi, Eleonora, Dallongeville, Jean, Damasceno, Albertino, Damsgaard, Camilla T., Danaei, Goodarz, Dankner, Rachel, Dauchet, Luc, De Backer, Guy, De Bacquer, Dirk, de Gaetano, Giovanni, De Henauw, Stefaan, De Smedt, Delphine, Deepa, Mohan, Deev, Alexander D., Dehghan, Abbas, Delisle, Helene, Delpeuch, Francis, Dhana, Klodian, Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F., Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares, Diaz, Alejandro, Djalalinia, Shirin, Do, Ha T. P., Dobson, Annette J., Donfrancesco, Chiara, Doering, Angela, Doua, Kouamelan, Drygas, Wojciech, Egbagbe, Eruke E., Eggertsen, Robert, Ekelund, Ulf, El Ati, Jalila, Elliott, Paul, Engle-Stone, Reina, Erasmus, Rajiv T., Erem, Cihangir, Eriksen, Louise, Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge, Evans, Alun, Faeh, David, Fall, Caroline H., Farzadfar, Farshad, Felix-Redondo, Francisco J., Ferguson, Trevor S., Fernandez-Berges, Daniel, Ferrante, Daniel, Ferrari, Marika, Ferreccio, Catterina, Ferrieres, Jean, Finn, Joseph D., Fischer, Krista, Monterubio Flores, Eric, Foeger, Bernhard, Foo, Leng Huat, Forslund, Ann-Sofie, Fortmann, Stephen P., Fouad, Heba M., Francis, Damian K., Franco, Maria do Carmo, Franco, Oscar H., Frontera, Guillermo, Fuchs, Flavio D., Fuchs, Sandra C., Fujita, Yuki, Furusawa, Takuro, Gaciong, Zbigniew, Gafencu, Mihai, Gareta, Dickman, Garnett, Sarah P., Gaspoz, Jean-Michel, Gasull, Magda, Gates, Louise, Geleijnse, Johanna M., Ghasemian, Anoosheh, Giampaoli, Simona, Gianfagna, Francesco, Giovannelli, Jonathan, Giwercman, Aleksander, Goldsmith, Rebecca A., Gonzalez Gross, Marcela, Gonzalez Rivas, Juan P., Bonet Gorbea, Mariano, Gottrand, Frederic, Iversen, Sidsel Graff, Grafnetter, Dusan, Grajda, Aneta, Grammatikopoulou, Maria G., Gregor, Ronald D., Grodzicki, Tomasz, Grontved, Anders, Gruden, Grabriella, Grujic, Vera, Gu, Dongfeng, Guan, Ong Peng, Gudnason, Vilmundur, Guerrero, Ramiro, Guessous, Idris, Guimaraes, Andre L., Gulliford, Martin C., Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna, Gunter, Marc, Guo, Xiu H., Guo, Yin, Gupta, Prakash C., Gureje, Oye, Gurzkowska, Beata, Gutierrez, Laura, Gutzwiller, Felix, Halkjaer, Jytte, Hardy, Rebecca, Kumar, Rachakulla Hari, Hayes, Alison J., He, Jiang, Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth, Hernandez Cadena, Leticia, Heshmat, Ramin, Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani, Ho, Sai Yin, Ho, Suzanne C., Hobbs, Michael, Hofman, Albert, Hormiga, Claudia M., Horta, Bernardo L., Houti, Leila, Htay, Thein Thein, Htet, Aung Soe, Htike, Maung Maung Than, Hu, Yonghua, Hussieni, Abdullatif S., Chinh Nguyen Huu, Huybrechts, Inge, Hwalla, Nahla, Iacoviello, Licia, Iannone, Anna G., Ibrahim, M. Mohsen, Ikeda, Nayu, Ikram, M. Arfan, Irazola, Vilma E., Islam, Muhammad, Iwasaki, Masanori, Jackson, Rod T., Jacobs, Jeremy M., Jafar, Tazeen, Jamil, Kazi M., Jamrozik, Konrad, Jasienska, Grazyna, Jiang, Chao Qiang, Joffres, Michel, Johansson, Mattias, Jonas, Jost B., Jorgensen, Torben, Joshi, Pradeep, Juolevi, Anne, Jurak, Gregor, Juresa, Vesna, Kaaks, Rudolf, Kafatos, Anthony, Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra, Kapantais, Efthymios, Kasaeian, Amir, Katz, Joanne, Kaur, Prabhdeep, Kavousi, Maryam, Keil, Ulrich, Boker, Lital Keinan, Kelishadi, Roya, Kemper, Han H. C. G., Kengne, Andre P., Kersting, Mathilde, Key, Timothy, Khader, Yousef Saleh, Khalili, Davood, Khang, Young-Ho, Khaw, Kay-Tee H., Khouw, Ilse M. S. L., Kiechl, Stefan, Killewo, Japhet, Kim, Jeongseon, Kiyohara, Yutaka, Klimont, Jeannette, Kolle, Elin, Kolsteren, Patrick, Korrovits, Paul, Koskinen, Seppo, Kouda, Katsuyasu, Koziel, Slawomir, Kratzer, Wolfgang, Krokstad, Steinar, Kromhout, Daan, Kruger, Herculina S., Kula, Krzysztof, Kulaga, Zbigniew, Kumar, R. Krishna, Kusuma, Yadlapalli S., Kuulasmaa, Kari, Kyobutungi, Catherine, Laamiri, Fatima Zahra, Laatikainen, Tiina, Lachat, Carl, Laid, Youcef, Lam, Tai Hing, Landrove, Orlando, Lanska, Vera, Lappas, Georg, Laugsand, Lars E., Laxmaiah, Avula, Khanh Le Nguyen Bao, Le, Tuyen D., Leclercq, Catherine, Lee, Jeannette, Lee, Jeonghee, Lehtimaki, Terho, Lekhraj, Rampal, Leon-Munoz, Luz M., Li, Yanping, Lim, Wei-Yen, Fernanda Lima-Costa, M., Lin, Hsien-Ho, Lin, Xu, Linneberg, Allan, Lissner, Lauren, Litwin, Mieczyslaw, Liu, Jing, Lorbeer, Roberto, Lotufo, Paulo A., Eugenio Lozano, Jose, Luksiene, Dalia, Lundqvist, Annamari, Lunet, Nuno, Lytsy, Per, Ma, Guansheng, Machi, Suka, Maggi, Stefania, Magliano, Dianna J., Makdisse, Marcia, Malekzadeh, Reza, Malhotra, Rahul, Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna, Manios, Yannis, Mann, Jim I., Manzato, Enzo, Margozzini, Paula, Markey, Oonagh, Marques-Vidal, Pedro, Marrugat, Jaume, Martin-Prevel, Yves, Martorell, Reynaldo, Masoodi, Shariq R., Matsha, Tandi E., Mazur, Artur, Mbanya, Jean Claude N., McFarlane, Shelly R., McGarvey, Stephen T., McKee, Martin, McLachlan, Stela, McLean, Rachael M., McNulty, Breige A., Yusof, Safiah Md, Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia, Meirhaeghe, Aline, Meisinger, Christa, Mendes, Larissa L., Menezes, Ana Maria B., Mensink, Gert B. M., Meshram, Indrapal I., Metspalu, Andres, Mi, Jie, Michaelsen, Kim F., Mikkel, Kairit, Miller, Jody C., Francisco Miquel, Juan, Jaime Miranda, J., Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta, Mohamed, Mostafa K., Mohammad, Kazem, Mohammadifard, Noushin, Mohan, Viswanathan, Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd, Molbo, Drude, Moller, Niels C., Molnar, Denes, Mondo, Charles K., Monterrubio, Eric A., Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K., Moreira, Leila B., Morejon, Alain, Moreno, Luis A., Morgan, Karen, Mortensen, Erik Lykke, Moschonis, George, Mossakowska, Malgorzata, Mostafa, Aya, Mota, Jorge, Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel, Motta, Jorge, Mu, Thet Thet, Muiesan, Maria Lorenza, Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina, Murphy, Neil, Mursu, Jaakko, Murtagh, Elaine M., Musa, Kamarul Imran, Musil, Vera, Nagel, Gabriele, Nakamura, Harunobu, Namesna, Jana, Nang, Ei Ei K., Nangia, Vinay B., Nankap, Martin, Narake, Sameer, Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva, Nenko, Ilona, Neovius, Martin, Nervi, Flavio, Neuhauser, Hannelore K., Nguyen, Nguyen D., Quang Ngoc Nguyen, Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E., Ning, Guang, Ninomiya, Toshiharu, Nishtar, Sania, Noale, Marianna, Norat, Teresa, Noto, Davide, Al Nsour, Mohannad, O'Reilly, Dermot, Ochoa-Aviles, Angelica M., Oh, Kyungwon, Olayan, Iman H., Anselmo Olinto, Maria Teresa, Oltarzewski, Maciej, Omar, Mohd A., Ordunez, Pedro, Ortiz, Ana P., Osler, Merete, Osmond, Clive, Ostojic, Sergej M., Otero, Johanna A., Overvad, Kim, Paccaud, Fred Michel, Padez, Cristina, Pajak, Andrzej, Palli, Domenico, Palloni, Alberto, Palmieri, Luigi, Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra, Panza, Francesco, Parnell, Winsome R., Parsaeian, Mahboubeh, Pednekar, Mangesh S., Peeters, Petra H., Peixoto, Sergio Viana, Pereira, Alexandre C., Perez, Cynthia M., Peters, Annette, Peykari, Niloofar, Son Thai Pham, Pigeot, Iris, Pikhart, Hynek, Pilav, Aida, Pilotto, Lorenza, Pistelli, Francesco, Pitakaka, Freda, Piwonska, Aleksandra, Piwonski, Jerzy, Plans-Rubio, Pedro, Poh, Bee Koon, Porta, Miquel, Portegies, Marileen L. P., Poulimeneas, Dimitrios, Pradeepa, Rajendra, Prashant, Mathur, Price, Jacqueline F., Puiu, Maria, Punab, Margus, Qasrawi, Radwan F., Qorbani, Mostafa, Tran Quoc Bao, Radic, Ivana, Radisauskas, Ricardas, Rahman, Mahmudur, Raitakari, Olli, Raj, Manu, Rao, Sudha Ramachandra, Ramachandran, Ambady, Ramke, Jacqueline, Ramos, Rafel, Rampal, Sanjay, Rasmussen, Finn, Redon, Josep, Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M., Ribeiro, Robespierre, Riboli, Elio, Rigo, Fernando, de Wit, Tobias Floris Rinke, Ritti-Dias, Raphael M., Rivera, Juan A., Robinson, Sian M., Robitaille, Cynthia, Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando, del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Maria, Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A., Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba, Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa, Romaguera, Dora, Ronkainen, Kimmo, Rosengren, Annika, Rouse, Ian, Rubinstein, Adolfo, Ruehli, Frank J., Rui, Ornelas, Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca, Russo Horimoto, Andrea R. V., Rutkowski, Marcin, Sabanayagam, Charumathi, Sachdev, Harshpal S., Saidi, Olfa, Salanave, Benoit, Salazar Martinez, Eduardo, Salomaa, Veikko, Salonen, Jukka T., Salvetti, Massimo, Sanchez-Abanto, Jose, Sandjaja, Sans, Susana, Santos, Diana A., Santos, Osvaldo, dos Santos, Renata Nunes, Santos, Rute, Sardinha, Luis B., Sarrafzadegan, Nizal, Saum, Kai-Uwe, Savva, Savvas C., Scazufca, Marcia, Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath, Schargrodsky, Herman, Schienkiewitz, Anja, Schmidt, Ida Maria, Schneider, Ione J., Schultsz, Constance, Schutte, Aletta E., Sein, Aye Aye, Senbanjo, Idowu O., Sepanlou, Sadaf G., Shalnova, Svetlana A., Shaw, Jonathan E., Shibuya, Kenji, Shin, Youchan, Shiri, Rahman, Siantar, Rosalynn, Sibai, Abla M., Silva, Antonio M., Santos Silva, Diego Augusto, Simon, Mary, Simons, Judith, Simons, Leon A., Sjostrom, Michael, Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta, Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw, Smeeth, Liam, Smith, Margaret C., Snijder, Marieke B., So, Hung-Kwan, Sobngwi, Eugene, Soderberg, Stefan, Soekatri, Moesijanti Y. E., Solfrizzi, Vincenzo, Sonestedt, Emily, Sorensen, Thorkild I. A., Soric, Maroje, Jerome, Charles Sossa, Soumare, Aicha, Staessen, Jan A., Starc, Gregor, Stathopoulou, Maria G., Staub, Kaspar, Stavreski, Bill, Steene-Johannessen, Jostein, Stehle, Peter, Stein, Aryeh D., Stergiou, George S., Stessman, Jochanan, Stieber, Jutta, Stoeckl, Doris, Stocks, Tanja, Stokwiszewski, Jakub, Stratton, Gareth, Strufaldi, Maria Wany, Sun, Chien-An, Sundstrom, Johan, Sung, Yn-Tz, Sunyer, Jordi, Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul, Swinburn, Boyd A., Sy, Rody G., Szponar, Lucjan, Tai, E. Shyong, Tammesoo, Mari-Liis, Tamosiunas, Abdonas, Tang, Line, Tang, Xun, Tanser, Frank, Tao, Yong, Tarp, Jakob, Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B., Taylor, Anne, Tchibindat, Felicite, Thijs, Lutgarde, Thuesen, Betina H., Tjonneland, Anne, Tolonen, Hanna K., Tolstrup, Janne S., Topbas, Murat, Topor-Madry, Roman, Torrent, Maties, Traissac, Pierre, Trichopoulou, Antonia, Trichopoulos, Dimitrios, Trinh, Oanh T. H., Trivedi, Atul, Tshepo, Lechaba, Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K., Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka, Tuomilehto, Jaakko, Turley, Maria L., Tynelius, Per, Tzotzas, Themistoklis, Tzourio, Christophe, Ueda, Peter, Ukoli, Flora A. M., Ulmer, Hanno, Unal, Belgin, Valdivia, Gonzalo, Vale, Susana, Valvi, Damaskini, van der Schouw, Yvonne T., Van Herck, Koen, Hoang Van Minh, van Valkengoed, Irene G. M., Vanderschueren, Dirk, Vanuzzo, Diego, Vatten, Lars, Vega, Tomas, Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo, Veronesi, Giovanni, Verschuren, W. M. Monique, Viegi, Giovanni, Viet, Lucie, Viikari-Juntura, Eira, Vineis, Paolo, Vioque, Jesus, Virtanen, Jyrki K., Visvikis-Siest, Sophie, Viswanathan, Bharathi, Vollenweider, Peter, Voutilainen, Sari, Vrijheid, Martine, Wade, Alisha N., Wagner, Aline, Walton, Janette, Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan, Wang, Ming-Dong, Wang, Qian, Wang, Ya Xing, Wannamethee, S. Goya, Wareham, Nicholas, Weerasekera, Deepa, Whincup, Peter H., Widhalm, Kurt, Widyahening, Indah S., Wiecek, Andrzej, Wilks, Rainford J., Willeit, Johann, Wojtyniak, Bogdan, Wong, Jyh Eiin, Wong, Tien Yin, Woo, Jean, Woodward, Mark, Wu, Frederick C., Wu, JianFeng, Wu, Shou Ling, Xu, Haiquan, Xu, Liang, Yamborisut, Uruwan, Yan, Weili, Yang, Xiaoguang, Yardim, Nazan, Ye, Xingwang, Yiallouros, Panayiotis K., Yoshihara, Akihiro, You, Qi Sheng, Younger-Coleman, Novie O., Yusoff, Ahmad F., Zainuddin, Ahmad A., Zambon, Sabina, Zdrojewski, Tomasz, Zeng, Yi, Zhao, Dong, Zhao, Wenhua, Zheng, Yingfeng, Zhou, Maigeng, Zhu, Dan, Zimmermann, Esther and Zuniga Cisneros, Julio (2016) Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. Lancet, 387 10026: 1377-1396. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30054-X


Author Di Cesare, Mariachiara
Bentham, James
Stevens, Gretchen A.
Zhou, Bin
Danaei, Goodarz
Lu, Yuan
Bixby, Honor
Cowan, Melanie J.
Riley, Leanne M.
Hajifathalian, Kaveh
Fortunato, Lea
Taddei, Cristina
Bennett, James E.
Ikeda, Nayu
Khang, Young-Ho
Kyobutungi, Catherine
Laxmaiah, Avula
Li, Yanping
Lin, Hsien-Ho
Miranda, J. Jaime
Mostafa, Aya
Turley, Maria L.
Paciorek, Christopher J.
Gunter, Marc
Ezzati, Majid
Abdeen, Ziad A.
Hamid, Zargar Abdul
Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.
Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
Adams, Robert
Aekplakorn, Wichai
Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
Ahmadvand, Alireza
Ahrens, Wolfgang
Ali, Mohamed M.
Alkerwi, Ala'a
Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar
Aly, Eman
Amouyel, Philippe
Amuzu, Antoinette
Andersen, Lars Bo
Anderssen, Sigmund A.
Andrade, Dolores S.
Anjana, Ranjit Mohan
Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer
Ariansen, Inger
Aris, Tahir
Arlappa, Nimmathota
Arveiler, Dominique
Assah, Felix K.
Avdicova, Maria
Azizi, Fereidoun
Babu, Bontha V.
Balakrishna, Nagalla
Bandosz, Piotr
Banegas, Jose R.
Barbagallo, Carlo M.
Barcelo, Alberto
Barkat, Amina
Barros, Mauro V.
Bata, Iqbal
Batieha, Anwar M.
Batista, Rosangela L.
Baur, Louise A.
Beaglehole, Robert
Ben Romdhane, Habiba
Benet, Mikhail
Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
Bernotiene, Gailute
Bettiol, Heloisa
Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor
Bharadwaj, Sumit
Bhargava, Santosh K.
Bhatti, Zaid
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
Bi, HongSheng
Bi, Yufang
Bjerregaard, Peter
Bjertness, Espen
Bjertness, Marius B.
Bjorkelund, Cecilia
Blake, Margaret
Blokstra, Anneke
Bo, Simona
Bobak, Martin
Boddy, Lynne M.
Boehm, Bernhard O.
Boeing, Heiner
Boissonnet, Carlos P.
Bongard, Vanina
Bovet, Pascal
Braeckman, Lutgart
Bragt, Marjolijn C. E.
Brajkovich, Imperia
Branca, Francesco
Breckenkamp, Juergen
Brenner, Hermann
Brewster, Lizzy M.
Brian, Garry R.
Bruno, Graziella
Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as)
Bugge, Anna
Burns, Con
Cabrera de Leon, Antonio
Cacciottolo, Joseph
Cama, Tilema
Cameron, Christine
Camolas, Jose
Can, Gunay
Candido, Ana Paula C.
Capuano, Vincenzo
Cardoso, Viviane C.
Carvalho, Maria J.
Casanueva, Felipe F.
Casas, Juan-Pablo
Caserta, Carmelo A.
Castetbon, Katia
Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
Chan, Angelique W.
Chan, Queenie
Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.
Chaturvedi, Nishi
Chen, Chien-Jen
Chen, Fangfang
Chen, Huashuai
Chen, Shuohua
Chen, Zhengming
Cheng, Ching-Yu
Chetrit, Angela
Chiolero, Arnaud
Chiou, Shu-Ti
Chirita-Emandi, Adela
Cho, Yumi
Christensen, Kaare
Chudek, Jerzy
Cifkova, Renata
Claessens, Frank
Clays, Els
Concin, Hans
Cooper, Cyrus
Cooper, Rachel
Coppinger, Tara C.
Costanzo, Simona
Cottel, Dominique
Cowell, Chris
Craig, Cora L.
Crujeiras, Ana B.
D'Arrigo, Graziella
d'Orsi, Eleonora
Dallongeville, Jean
Damasceno, Albertino
Damsgaard, Camilla T.
Danaei, Goodarz
Dankner, Rachel
Dauchet, Luc
De Backer, Guy
De Bacquer, Dirk
de Gaetano, Giovanni
De Henauw, Stefaan
De Smedt, Delphine
Deepa, Mohan
Deev, Alexander D.
Dehghan, Abbas
Delisle, Helene
Delpeuch, Francis
Dhana, Klodian
Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.
Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares
Diaz, Alejandro
Djalalinia, Shirin
Do, Ha T. P.
Dobson, Annette J.
Donfrancesco, Chiara
Doering, Angela
Doua, Kouamelan
Drygas, Wojciech
Egbagbe, Eruke E.
Eggertsen, Robert
Ekelund, Ulf
El Ati, Jalila
Elliott, Paul
Engle-Stone, Reina
Erasmus, Rajiv T.
Erem, Cihangir
Eriksen, Louise
Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge
Evans, Alun
Faeh, David
Fall, Caroline H.
Farzadfar, Farshad
Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.
Ferguson, Trevor S.
Fernandez-Berges, Daniel
Ferrante, Daniel
Ferrari, Marika
Ferreccio, Catterina
Ferrieres, Jean
Finn, Joseph D.
Fischer, Krista
Monterubio Flores, Eric
Foeger, Bernhard
Foo, Leng Huat
Forslund, Ann-Sofie
Fortmann, Stephen P.
Fouad, Heba M.
Francis, Damian K.
Franco, Maria do Carmo
Franco, Oscar H.
Frontera, Guillermo
Fuchs, Flavio D.
Fuchs, Sandra C.
Fujita, Yuki
Furusawa, Takuro
Gaciong, Zbigniew
Gafencu, Mihai
Gareta, Dickman
Garnett, Sarah P.
Gaspoz, Jean-Michel
Gasull, Magda
Gates, Louise
Geleijnse, Johanna M.
Ghasemian, Anoosheh
Giampaoli, Simona
Gianfagna, Francesco
Giovannelli, Jonathan
Giwercman, Aleksander
Goldsmith, Rebecca A.
Gonzalez Gross, Marcela
Gonzalez Rivas, Juan P.
Bonet Gorbea, Mariano
Gottrand, Frederic
Iversen, Sidsel Graff
Grafnetter, Dusan
Grajda, Aneta
Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.
Gregor, Ronald D.
Grodzicki, Tomasz
Grontved, Anders
Gruden, Grabriella
Grujic, Vera
Gu, Dongfeng
Guan, Ong Peng
Gudnason, Vilmundur
Guerrero, Ramiro
Guessous, Idris
Guimaraes, Andre L.
Gulliford, Martin C.
Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna
Gunter, Marc
Guo, Xiu H.
Guo, Yin
Gupta, Prakash C.
Gureje, Oye
Gurzkowska, Beata
Gutierrez, Laura
Gutzwiller, Felix
Halkjaer, Jytte
Hardy, Rebecca
Kumar, Rachakulla Hari
Hayes, Alison J.
He, Jiang
Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth
Hernandez Cadena, Leticia
Heshmat, Ramin
Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani
Ho, Sai Yin
Ho, Suzanne C.
Hobbs, Michael
Hofman, Albert
Hormiga, Claudia M.
Horta, Bernardo L.
Houti, Leila
Htay, Thein Thein
Htet, Aung Soe
Htike, Maung Maung Than
Hu, Yonghua
Hussieni, Abdullatif S.
Chinh Nguyen Huu
Huybrechts, Inge
Hwalla, Nahla
Iacoviello, Licia
Iannone, Anna G.
Ibrahim, M. Mohsen
Ikeda, Nayu
Ikram, M. Arfan
Irazola, Vilma E.
Islam, Muhammad
Iwasaki, Masanori
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Title Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants
Journal name Lancet   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0140-6736
1474-547X
Publication date 2016-04-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30054-X
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 387
Issue 10026
Start page 1377
End page 1396
Total pages 20
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher The Lancet Publishing Group
Language eng
Subject 2700 Medicine
Abstract Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. Findings We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19·1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127·0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125·7–128·3) in men and 122·3 mm Hg (121·0–123·6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78·7 mm Hg (77·9–79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9–77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4–27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8–22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. Interpretation During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe. Funding Wellcome Trust.
Formatted abstract
Background
Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries.

Methods
We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18·5 kg/m2 [underweight], 18·5 kg/m2 to <20 kg/m2, 20 kg/m2 to <25 kg/m2, 25 kg/m2 to <30 kg/m2, 30 kg/m2 to <35 kg/m2, 35 kg/m2 to <40 kg/m2, ≥40 kg/m2 [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue.

Findings
We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21·7 kg/m2 (95% credible interval 21·3–22·1) in 1975 to 24·2 kg/m2 (24·0–24·4) in 2014 in men, and from 22·1 kg/m2 (21·7–22·5) in 1975 to 24·4 kg/m2 (24·2–24·6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21·4 kg/m2 in central Africa and south Asia to 29·2 kg/m2 (28·6–29·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21·8 kg/m2 (21·4–22·3) in south Asia to 32·2 kg/m2 (31·5–32·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13·8% (10·5–17·4) to 8·8% (7·4–10·3) in men and from 14·6% (11·6–17·9) to 9·7% (8·3–11·1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23·4% (17·8–29·2) in men and 24·0% (18·9–29·3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3·2% (2·4–4·1) in 1975 to 10·8% (9·7–12·0) in 2014 in men, and from 6·4% (5·1–7·8) to 14·9% (13·6–16·1) in women. 2·3% (2·0–2·7) of the world's men and 5·0% (4·4–5·6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0·64% (0·46–0·86) in men and 1·6% (1·3–1·9) in women.

Interpretation
If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world's poorest regions, especially in south Asia.

Funding
Wellcome Trust, Grand Challenges Canada.
Keyword Cause specific mortality
Risk factors
Noncommunicable diseases
Cardiovascular disease
Obesity prevention
Overweight
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Grant ID G0401527
MC_UP_A620_1015
MC_UP_A620_1016
MC_UU_12011/1
MC_UU_12011/2
MC_UU_12011/3
MC_UU_12011/4
MC_UU_12019/1
MR/K006584/1
MR/L01341X/1
MR/N003284/1
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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