Whole genome comparison reveals high levels of inbreeding and strain redundancy across the spectrum of commercial wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Borneman, Anthony R., Forgan, Angus H., Kolouchova, Radka, Fraser, James A. and Schmidt, Simon A. (2016) Whole genome comparison reveals high levels of inbreeding and strain redundancy across the spectrum of commercial wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, 6 4: 957-971. doi:10.1534/g3.115.025692


Author Borneman, Anthony R.
Forgan, Angus H.
Kolouchova, Radka
Fraser, James A.
Schmidt, Simon A.
Title Whole genome comparison reveals high levels of inbreeding and strain redundancy across the spectrum of commercial wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Formatted title
Whole genome comparison reveals high levels of inbreeding and strain redundancy across the spectrum of commercial wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Journal name G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2160-1836
Publication date 2016-04-01
Year available 2017
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1534/g3.115.025692
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 6
Issue 4
Start page 957
End page 971
Total pages 15
Place of publication Bethesda, MD United States
Publisher Genetics Society of America
Language eng
Abstract Humans have been consuming wines for more than 7000 yr . For most of this time, fermentations were presumably performed by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that naturally found their way into the fermenting must . In contrast, most commercial wines are now produced by inoculation with pure yeast monocultures, ensuring consistent, reliable and reproducible fermentations, and there are now hundreds of these yeast starter cultures commercially available. In order to thoroughly investigate the genetic diversity that has been captured by over 50 yr of commercial wine yeast development and domestication, whole genome sequencing has been performed on 212 strains of S. cerevisiae, including 119 commercial wine and brewing starter strains, and wine isolates from across seven decades. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that, despite their large numbers, commercial strains, and wine strains in general, are extremely similar genetically, possessing all of the hallmarks of a population bottle-neck, and high levels of inbreeding. In addition, many commercial strains from multiple suppliers are nearly genetically identical, suggesting that the limits of effective genetic variation within this genetically narrow group may be approaching saturation.
Formatted abstract
Humans have been consuming wines for more than 7000 yr . For most of this time, fermentations were presumably performed by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that naturally found their way into the fermenting must . In contrast, most commercial wines are now produced by inoculation with pure yeast monocultures, ensuring consistent, reliable and reproducible fermentations, and there are now hundreds of these yeast starter cultures commercially available. In order to thoroughly investigate the genetic diversity that has been captured by over 50 yr of commercial wine yeast development and domestication, whole genome sequencing has been performed on 212 strains of S. cerevisiae, including 119 commercial wine and brewing starter strains, and wine isolates from across seven decades. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that, despite their large numbers, commercial strains, and wine strains in general, are extremely similar genetically, possessing all of the hallmarks of a population bottle-neck, and high levels of inbreeding. In addition, many commercial strains from multiple suppliers are nearly genetically identical, suggesting that the limits of effective genetic variation within this genetically narrow group may be approaching saturation.
Keyword Genome sequencing
Industrial yeast
Comparative genomics
Fermentation
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
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