10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology Abstract Book

10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology Abstract Book (2013) . 10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, JULY 2013, Barcelona - Spain.

Title of proceedings 10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology Abstract Book
Conference name 10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology
Conference location Barcelona - Spain
Conference dates JULY 2013
Publication date 2013
Author Panagiotopoulou O
Rankin JW
Hutchinson JR
End page S-062
Language eng
Subject 210000 Science - General
270599 Zoology not elsewhere classified
270503 Animal Anatomy and Histology
Abstract/Summary The most common cause of morbidity and mortality of large mammals in captivity and domesticity is foot disease. Foot pathologies encountered clinically are similar across species, encompassing degenerative, infectious and traumatic disorders. The causes of these pathologies are multifactorial yet the mechanics of foot-ground interaction play a major role- particularly the high forces and pressures during mid-stance loading, which can exacerbate pathology even if not the primary cause. Nevertheless, foot anatomy (and thus mechanics) varies enormously, even among herbivorous quadrupeds. Horses have an extreme foot design with one toe ending in a rigid hoof, which is effective for fast-running but very stiff, and generates large force vibrations during foot impact. Elephants and rhinoceroses represent another extreme: their feet have five and three toes, respectively, bound within a flexible pad of fatty, fibrous tissue (the digital cushion). This digital cushion is heavy and thus costly to swing, but also absorbs and distributes forces and pressures. But how do less extreme foot morphologies, such as those found in domestic cattle and pigs (i.e., even toed ungulate mammals) influence foot mechanics? We developed a novel approach for this study that integrates three-dimensional data from biplanar radiography (XROMM), inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modelling and finite element analysis to test the hypothesis that the most prevalent pathologies in animal feet occur in anatomical regions that experience the highest stresses during the mid-stance phase of locomotion. We provide our results from the application of this comparative approach to five species of hoofed mammals, ranging from pigs to elephants, to infer how foot form and function evolved, how body size relates to foot mechanics and what the consequences of foot structures and motions are for the risk of pathology.
Keyword Foot morphology

Document type: Conference Proceedings
Collection: School of Biomedical Sciences Publications
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Created: Thu, 07 Apr 2016, 13:47:54 EST by Olga Panagiotopoulou on behalf of School of Biomedical Sciences