Urinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humans

Frank, T, Stintzing, FC, Carle, R, Bitsch, I, Quaas, D, Strass, G, Bitsch, R and Netzel, M (2005) Urinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humans. Pharmacological Research, 52 4: 290-297. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2005.04.005

Author Frank, T
Stintzing, FC
Carle, R
Bitsch, I
Quaas, D
Strass, G
Bitsch, R
Netzel, M
Title Urinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humans
Journal name Pharmacological Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1043-6618
Publication date 2005-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.phrs.2005.04.005
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 52
Issue 4
Start page 290
End page 297
Total pages 8
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher Academic Press
Language eng
Subject 3004 Pharmacology
Abstract The aim of the present pilot study was to characterise the renal elimination of betalains after consumption of red beet juice (RBJ). Six healthy, non-smoking female volunteers were given a single oral dose of either 500 mL of a commercial RBJ containing 362.7 mg of betalains and 500 mL of tap water, respectively, in a sequential manner. Urine was collected in intervals up to 24 h post-dose. Renal excretion of betalains was determined spectrophotometrically and quantified as betanin-equivalents. In addition, the identity of individual compounds was confirmed by HPLC coupled with diode-array detection and positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry, respectively. The amount (mean ± S.D.) of intact betalains (betanin and isobetanin) recovered in urine was 1001 ± 273 μg corresponding to 0.28 ± 0.08% of the administered dose. Maximum excretion rates were observed after a median tmax,R of 3.0 h (range 2.5-8.0 h) amounting to 91.7 ± 30.1 μg/h. The terminal elimination rate constant (λz) and the corresponding half-life were 0.097 ± 0.021 h-1 and 7.43 ± 1.47 h, respectively. Using the λz estimates obtained the expected total betalain amount excreted in urine was 1228 ± 291 μg. Based on the results obtained it is assumed that either the bioavailability of the betalains is low or that renal clearance is a minor route of systemic elimination for these compounds. The urinary excretion rates of unmetabolised betalains were fast and appeared to be monoexponential suggesting a one-compartment model. In order to get a more complete picture of the pharmacokinetics and health-promoting properties of red beet betalains, quantitative data on betalain bioavailability should include measurements of unchanged compounds and their corresponding metabolites in plasma, urine and bile.
Keyword Betalains
Red beet
Renal excretion
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences Publications
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