The X factor: X chromosome dosage compensation in the evolutionarily divergent monotremes and marsupials

Whitworth, Deanne J. and Pask, Andrew J. (2016) The X factor: X chromosome dosage compensation in the evolutionarily divergent monotremes and marsupials. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 56 117-121. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2016.01.006

Attached Files (Some files may be inaccessible until you login with your UQ eSpace credentials)
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
UQ379475_OA.pdf Full text (open access) application/pdf 326.05KB 0

Author Whitworth, Deanne J.
Pask, Andrew J.
Title The X factor: X chromosome dosage compensation in the evolutionarily divergent monotremes and marsupials
Journal name Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1084-9521
1096-3634
Publication date 2016-02-05
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/j.semcdb.2016.01.006
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 56
Start page 117
End page 121
Total pages 5
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher Academic Press
Language eng
Subject 1309 Developmental Biology
1307 Cell Biology
Abstract Marsupials and monotremes represent evolutionarily divergent lineages from the majority of extant mammals which are eutherian, or placental, mammals. Monotremes possess multiple X and Y chromosomes that appear to have arisen independently of eutherian and marsupial sex chromosomes. Dosage compensation of X-linked genes occurs in monotremes on a gene-by-gene basis, rather than through chromosome-wide silencing, as is the case in eutherians and marsupials. Specifically, studies in the platypus have shown that for any given X-linked gene, a specific proportion of nuclei within a cell population will silence one locus, with the percentage of cells undergoing inactivation at that locus being highly gene-specific. Hence, it is perhaps not surprising that the expression level of X-linked genes in female platypus is almost double that in males. This is in contrast to the situation in marsupials where one of the two X chromosomes is inactivated in females by the long non-coding RNA RSX, a functional analogue of the eutherian XIST. However, marsupial X chromosome inactivation differs from that seen in eutherians in that it is exclusively the paternal X chromosome that is silenced. In addition, marsupials appear to have globally upregulated X-linked gene expression in both sexes, thus balancing their expression levels with those of the autosomes, a process initially proposed by Ohno in 1967 as being a fundamental component of the X chromosome dosage compensation mechanism but which may not have evolved in eutherians.
Keyword X chromosome inactivation
Monotreme
Marsupial
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
School of Veterinary Science Publications
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 2 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 2 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Thu, 11 Feb 2016, 03:45:03 EST by Dr Deanne Whitworth on behalf of School of Veterinary Science