Prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among 6–24-month-old underweight and normal-weight children living in an urban slum of Bangladesh

Ahmed, AM Shamsir, Ahmed, Tahmeed, Long, Kurt Z., Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares, Hossain, Md Iqbal, Islam, Md Munirul, Mahfuz, Mustafa, Gaffar, SM Abdul, Sharmeen, Atiya, Haque, Rashidul, Guerrant, Richard L., Petri, William A. and Mamun, Abdullah AI (2015) Prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among 6–24-month-old underweight and normal-weight children living in an urban slum of Bangladesh. Public Health Nutrition, 20 10: 1-11. doi:10.1017/S1368980015003353


Author Ahmed, AM Shamsir
Ahmed, Tahmeed
Long, Kurt Z.
Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares
Hossain, Md Iqbal
Islam, Md Munirul
Mahfuz, Mustafa
Gaffar, SM Abdul
Sharmeen, Atiya
Haque, Rashidul
Guerrant, Richard L.
Petri, William A.
Mamun, Abdullah AI
Title Prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among 6–24-month-old underweight and normal-weight children living in an urban slum of Bangladesh
Journal name Public Health Nutrition   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1475-2727
1368-9800
Publication date 2015-11-25
Year available 2015
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1017/S1368980015003353
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 20
Issue 10
Start page 1
End page 11
Total pages 11
Place of publication Cambridge, United Kingdom
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Language eng
Subject 2701 Medicine (miscellaneous)
2916 Nutrition and Dietetics
2739 Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Abstract Objective We quantified the prevalence of vitamin D status in 6-24-month-old underweight and normal-weight children and identified the socio-economic and dietary predictors for status. Design Cross-sectional, baseline data from a nutritional intervention study were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of being vitamin D deficient or insufficient with the reference being vitamin D sufficient. Setting Urban slum area of Mirpur field site, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Subjects Underweight (weight-for-age Z-score <-2·00) and normal-weight (weight-for-age Z-score ≥-1·00) children aged 6-24 months. Results Among 468 underweight children, 23·1 % were sufficient, 42·3 % insufficient, 31·2 % deficient and 3·4 % severely vitamin D deficient. Among 445 normal-weight children, 14·8 % were sufficient, 39·6 % insufficient and 40·0 % deficient and 5·6 % severely deficient. With adjusted multinominal regression analysis, risk factors (OR (95 % CI)) for vitamin D deficiency in underweight children were: older age group (18-24 months old; 2·9 (1·5-5·7)); measurement of vitamin D status during winter (3·0 (1·4-6·4)) and spring (6·9 (3·0-16·1)); and maternal education (≥6 years of institutional education; 2·2 (1·0-4·9)). In normal-weight children, older age group (3·6 (1·2-10·6)) and living in the richest quintile (3·7 (1·1-12·5)) were found to be significantly associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Conclusions The study demonstrates a significant burden of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in both underweight and normal-weight children <2 years of age from an urban slum of Bangladesh. Identification of risk factors may help in mitigating the important burden in such children.
Formatted abstract
Objective: We quantified the prevalence of vitamin D status in 6–24-month-old underweight and normal-weight children and identified the socio-economic and dietary predictors for status.

Design: Cross-sectional, baseline data from a nutritional intervention study were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of being vitamin D deficient or insufficient with the reference being vitamin D sufficient.
Setting Urban slum area of Mirpur field site, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Subjects Underweight (weight-for-age Z-score <−2·00) and normal-weight (weight-for-age Z-score ≥−1·00) children aged 6–24 months.

Results: Among 468 underweight children, 23·1 % were sufficient, 42·3 % insufficient, 31·2 % deficient and 3·4 % severely vitamin D deficient. Among 445 normal-weight children, 14·8 % were sufficient, 39·6 % insufficient and 40·0 % deficient and 5·6 % severely deficient. With adjusted multinominal regression analysis, risk factors (OR (95 % CI)) for vitamin D deficiency in underweight children were: older age group (18–24 months old; 2·9 (1·5–5·7)); measurement of vitamin D status during winter (3·0 (1·4–6·4)) and spring (6·9 (3·0–16·1)); and maternal education (≥6 years of institutional education; 2·2 (1·0–4·9)). In normal-weight children, older age group (3·6 (1·2–10·6)) and living in the richest quintile (3·7 (1·1–12·5)) were found to be significantly associated with vitamin D insufficiency.

Conclusions: The study demonstrates a significant burden of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in both underweight and normal-weight children <2 years of age from an urban slum of Bangladesh. Identification of risk factors may help in mitigating the important burden in such children.
Keyword Bangladesh
Children aged <2 years
Risk factors
Vitamin D
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

 
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