A comparative evaluation of feathers, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal swabs for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in experimentally infected chickens and ducks

Nuradji, Harimurti, Bingham, John, Lowther, Sue, Wibawa, Hendra, Colling, Axel, Long, Ngo Thanh and Meers, Joanne (2015) A comparative evaluation of feathers, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal swabs for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in experimentally infected chickens and ducks. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 27 6: 704-715. doi:10.1177/1040638715611443


Author Nuradji, Harimurti
Bingham, John
Lowther, Sue
Wibawa, Hendra
Colling, Axel
Long, Ngo Thanh
Meers, Joanne
Title A comparative evaluation of feathers, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal swabs for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in experimentally infected chickens and ducks
Journal name Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1943-4936
1040-6387
Publication date 2015-11-01
Year available 2015
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1177/1040638715611443
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 27
Issue 6
Start page 704
End page 715
Total pages 12
Place of publication Thousand Oaks, CA, United States
Publisher SAGE Publications
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs have been widely used for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus (HPAI virus) in birds. Previous studies have shown that the feather calamus is a site of H5N1 virus replication and therefore has potential for diagnosis of avian influenza. However, studies characterizing the value of feathers for this purpose are not available, to our knowledge; herein we present a study investigating feathers for detection of H5N1 virus. Ducks and chickens were experimentally infected with H5N1 HPAI virus belonging to 1 of 3 clades (Indonesian clades 2.1.1 and 2.1.3, Vietnamese clade 1). Different types of feathers and oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples were compared by virus isolation. In chickens, virus was detected from all sample types: oral and cloacal swabs, and immature pectorosternal, flight, and tail feathers. During clinical disease, the viral titers were higher in feathers than swabs. In ducks, the proportion of virus-positive samples was variable depending on viral strain and time from challenge; cloacal swabs and mature pectorosternal feathers were clearly inferior to oral swabs and immature pectorosternal, tail, and flight feathers. In ducks infected with Indonesian strains, in which most birds did not develop clinical signs, all sampling methods gave intermittent positive results; 3–23% of immature pectorosternal feathers were positive during the acute infection period; oropharyngeal swabs had slightly higher positivity during early infection, while feathers performed better during late infection. Our results indicate that immature feathers are an alternative sample for the diagnosis of HPAI in chickens and ducks.
Keyword Chickens
Ducks
Feather
H5N1
Highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus
Swab
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2016 Collection
School of Veterinary Science Publications
 
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