Comparing a silver-impregnated activated carbon with an unmodified activated carbon for disinfection by-product minimisation and precursor removal

Watson, Kalinda, Farre, Maria Jose and Knight, Nicole (2016) Comparing a silver-impregnated activated carbon with an unmodified activated carbon for disinfection by-product minimisation and precursor removal. Science of the Total Environment, 542 672-684. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.125


Author Watson, Kalinda
Farre, Maria Jose
Knight, Nicole
Title Comparing a silver-impregnated activated carbon with an unmodified activated carbon for disinfection by-product minimisation and precursor removal
Journal name Science of the Total Environment   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0048-9697
1879-1026
Publication date 2016-01-15
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.125
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 542
Start page 672
End page 684
Total pages 13
Place of publication Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier
Language eng
Formatted abstract
During disinfection, bromide, iodide and natural organic matter (NOM) in source waters can lead to the formation of brominated and/or iodinated disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are often more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of a silver-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) with the equivalent unimpregnated granular activated carbon (GAC) for the removal of bromide, iodide and NOM from a matrix of synthetic waters with variable NOM, halide, and alkalinity concentrations, and to investigate the impact on DBP formation. An enhanced coagulation (EC) pre-treatment was employed prior to sample exposure to either carbon adsorbent. Excellent halide removals were observed by the SIAC treatment across the sample matrix, with iodide concentrations consistently reduced to below the method reporting limit (< 2 μg/L) from as high as 25 μg/L, and 95 ± 4% removal of bromide achieved. Bromide removal by unimpregnated GAC was poor, however iodide removal was comparable to that achieved by SIAC. The combination of EC with SIAC treatment removed 77 ± 8% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present, across the sample matrix, which was similar to removals by EC/GAC (67 ± 14%). Combined EC/SIAC treatment reduced both total trihalomethanes (tTHMs) and total dihaloacetonitriles (tDHANs) formation by 97 ± 3%, while also achieving a greater than 74% removal of two chloropropanones and a 92 ± 8% decrease in chloral hydrate (CH), compared to untreated samples, regardless of the sample's starting water quality (bromide, alkalinity and NOM concentration). Combined EC/GAC treatment led to similar DBP removals to EC/SIAC for the fully chlorinated DBPs, however, brominated DBPs were less efficiently removed, or experienced concentration increases.
Keyword Halide removal
Natural organic matter removal
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
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