Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: Evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium

Morris, Richard W., Taylor, Amy E., Fluharty, Meg E., Bjorngaard, Johan H., Asvold, Bjorn Olav, Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad, Campbell, Archie, Marioni, Riccardo, Kumari, Meena, Korhonen, Tellervo, Mannisto, Satu, Marques-Vidal, Pedro, Kaakinen, Marika, Cavadino, Alana, Postmus, Iris, Husemoen, Lise Lotte N., Skaaby, Tea, Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh, Treur, Jorien L., Willemsen, Gonneke, Dale, Caroline, Wannamethee, S. Goya, Lahti, Jari, Palotie, Aarno, Raikkonen, Katri, McConnachie, Alex, Padmanabhan, Sandosh, Wong, Andrew, Dalgard, Christine, Paternoster, Lavinia, Ben-Shlomo, Yoav, Tyrrell, Jessica, Horwood, John, Fergusson, David M., Kennedy, Martin A., Nohr, Ellen A., Christiansen, Lene, Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm, Kuh, Diana, Watt, Graham, Eriksson, Johan G., Whincup, Peter H., Vink, Jacqueline M., Boomsma, Dorret I., Smith, George Davey, Lawlor, Debbie, Linneberg, Allan, Ford, Ian, Jukema, J. Wouter, Power, Chris, Hypponen, Elina, Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta, Preisig, Martin, Borodulin, Katja, Kaprio, Jaakko, Kivimaki, Mika, Smith, Blair H., Hayward, Caroline, Romundstad, Pal R., Sorensen, Thorkild I. A., Munafo, Marcus R. and Sattar, Naveed (2015) Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: Evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium. BMJ Open, 5 8: e008808.1-e008808.10. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008808

Author Morris, Richard W.
Taylor, Amy E.
Fluharty, Meg E.
Bjorngaard, Johan H.
Asvold, Bjorn Olav
Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad
Campbell, Archie
Marioni, Riccardo
Kumari, Meena
Korhonen, Tellervo
Mannisto, Satu
Marques-Vidal, Pedro
Kaakinen, Marika
Cavadino, Alana
Postmus, Iris
Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.
Skaaby, Tea
Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh
Treur, Jorien L.
Willemsen, Gonneke
Dale, Caroline
Wannamethee, S. Goya
Lahti, Jari
Palotie, Aarno
Raikkonen, Katri
McConnachie, Alex
Padmanabhan, Sandosh
Wong, Andrew
Dalgard, Christine
Paternoster, Lavinia
Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
Tyrrell, Jessica
Horwood, John
Fergusson, David M.
Kennedy, Martin A.
Nohr, Ellen A.
Christiansen, Lene
Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm
Kuh, Diana
Watt, Graham
Eriksson, Johan G.
Whincup, Peter H.
Vink, Jacqueline M.
Boomsma, Dorret I.
Smith, George Davey
Lawlor, Debbie
Linneberg, Allan
Ford, Ian
Jukema, J. Wouter
Power, Chris
Hypponen, Elina
Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
Preisig, Martin
Borodulin, Katja
Kaprio, Jaakko
Kivimaki, Mika
Smith, Blair H.
Hayward, Caroline
Romundstad, Pal R.
Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
Munafo, Marcus R.
Sattar, Naveed
Title Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: Evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium
Journal name BMJ Open   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2044-6055
Publication date 2015-08-11
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008808
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 5
Issue 8
Start page e008808.1
End page e008808.10
Total pages 10
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher B M J Group
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Objectives: To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity.

Design: Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes.

Participants: 148 731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA).

Primary outcome measures: Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio.

Results: The data included up to 66 809 never-smokers, 43 009 former smokers and 38 913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by −0.40% (95% CI −0.57% to −0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being −0.31% (95% CI −0.42% to −0.19), −0.08% (−0.19% to 0.03%) and −0.74% (−0.96% to −0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (−0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (−0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele.

Conclusions: For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Queensland Brain Institute Publications
Official 2016 Collection
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