Management of hypertension and heart failure in patients with Addison's disease

Inder, Warrick J., Meyer, Caroline and Hunt, Penny J. (2015) Management of hypertension and heart failure in patients with Addison's disease. Clinical Endocrinology, 82 6: 789-792. doi:10.1111/cen.12592

Author Inder, Warrick J.
Meyer, Caroline
Hunt, Penny J.
Title Management of hypertension and heart failure in patients with Addison's disease
Journal name Clinical Endocrinology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1365-2265
Publication date 2015-06-01
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1111/cen.12592
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 82
Issue 6
Start page 789
End page 792
Total pages 4
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Language eng
Subject 2712 Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Abstract Addison's disease may be complicated by hypertension and less commonly by heart failure. We review the pathophysiology of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis in Addison's disease and how this is altered in the setting of hypertension and heart failure. An essential first step in management in both conditions is optimizing glucocorticoid replacement and considering dose reduction if excessive. Following this, if a patient with Addison's disease remains hypertensive, the fludrocortisone dose should be reviewed and reduced if there are clinical and/or biochemical signs of mineralocorticoid excess. In the absence of such signs, where the renin is towards the upper end of the normal range or elevated, an angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor is the treatment of choice, and the fludrocortisone dose should remain unchanged. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are clinically useful as second line agents, but diuretics should be avoided. In the setting of heart failure, there is an increase in total body sodium and water; therefore, it is appropriate to reduce and rarely consider ceasing the fludrocortisone. Loop diuretics may be used, but not aldosterone antagonists such as spironolactone or eplerenone. Standard treatment with ACE inhibitors, or as an alternative, AII receptor antagonists, are appropriate. Measurements of renin are no longer helpful in heart failure to determine the volume status but plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP/proBNP) may help guide therapy.
Keyword Hypertension
Heart Failure
Addison's disease
Glucocorticoid replacement
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2016 Collection
School of Medicine Publications
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