Implications of ghrelin and hexarelin in diabetes and diabetes-associated heart diseases

Mosa, Rasha Mofeed Habeeb, Zhang, Zhen, Shao, Renfu, Deng, Chao, Chen, Jiezhong and Chen, Chen (2015) Implications of ghrelin and hexarelin in diabetes and diabetes-associated heart diseases. Endocrine, 49 2: 307-323. doi:10.1007/s12020-015-0531-z

Author Mosa, Rasha Mofeed Habeeb
Zhang, Zhen
Shao, Renfu
Deng, Chao
Chen, Jiezhong
Chen, Chen
Title Implications of ghrelin and hexarelin in diabetes and diabetes-associated heart diseases
Journal name Endocrine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1559-0100
Publication date 2015-06-01
Year available 2015
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1007/s12020-015-0531-z
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 49
Issue 2
Start page 307
End page 323
Total pages 5
Place of publication Totowa, NJ,United States
Publisher Humana Press
Language eng
Abstract Ghrelin and its synthetic analog hexarelin are specific ligands of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor. GHS have strong growth hormone-releasing effect and other neuroendocrine activities such as stimulatory effects on prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. Recently, several studies have reported other beneficial functions of GHS that are independent of GH. Ghrelin and hexarelin, for examples, have been shown to exert GH-independent cardiovascular activity. Hexarelin has been reported to regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in macrophages and adipocytes. PPAR-γ is an important regulator of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitization. Ghrelin also shows protective effects on beta cells against lipotoxicity through activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition, and nuclear exclusion of forkhead box protein O1. Acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG) administration reduces glucose levels and increases insulin-producing beta cell number, and insulin secretion in pancreatectomized rats and in newborn rats treated with streptozotocin, suggesting a possible role of GHS in pancreatic regeneration. Therefore, the discovery of GHS has opened many new perspectives in endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular research areas, suggesting the possible therapeutic application in diabetes and diabetic complications especially diabetic cardiomyopathy. Here, we review the physiological roles of ghrelin and hexarelin in the protection and regeneration of beta cells and their roles in the regulation of insulin release, glucose, and fat metabolism and present their potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic-associated heart diseases.
Keyword Beta cell apoptosis
Growth hormone secretagogues
PPAR-γ and diabetic cardiomyopathy
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2016 Collection
School of Biomedical Sciences Publications
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