Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals

Whelan, Nathan V., Kocot, Kevin M., Moroz, Leonid L. and Halanych, Kenneth M. (2015) Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112 18: 5773-5778. doi:10.1073/pnas.1503453112


Author Whelan, Nathan V.
Kocot, Kevin M.
Moroz, Leonid L.
Halanych, Kenneth M.
Title Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals
Journal name Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1091-6490
0027-8424
Publication date 2015-05-05
Year available 2015
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1503453112
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 112
Issue 18
Start page 5773
End page 5778
Total pages 6
Place of publication Washington, DC United States
Publisher National Academy of Sciences
Language eng
Subject 1000 General
Abstract Elucidating relationships among early animal lineages has been difficult, and recent phylogenomic analyses place Ctenophora sister to all other extant animals, contrary to the traditional view of Porifera as the earliest-branching animal lineage. To date, phylogenetic support for either ctenophores or sponges as sister to other animals has been limited and inconsistent among studies. Lack of agreement among phylogenomic analyses using different data and methods obscures how complex traits, such as epithelia, neurons, and muscles evolved. A consensus view of animal evolution will not be accepted until datasets and methods converge on a single hypothesis of early metazoan relationships and putative sources of systematic error (e.g., long-branch attraction, compositional bias, poor model choice) are assessed. Here, we investigate possible causes of systematic error by expanding taxon sampling with eight novel transcriptomes, strictly enforcing orthology inference criteria, and progressively examining potential causes of systematic error while using both maximum-likelihood with robust data partitioning and Bayesian inference with a site-heterogeneous model. We identified ribosomal protein genes as possessing a conflicting signal compared with other genes, which caused some past studies to infer ctenophores and cnidarians as sister. Importantly, biases resulting from elevated compositional heterogeneity or elevated substitution rates are ruled out. Placement of ctenophores as sister to all other animals, and sponge monophyly, are strongly supported under multiple analyses, herein.
Keyword Phylogenomics
Metazoa
Ctenophora
Porifera
Cnidaria
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Grant ID 1146575
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2016 Collection
School of Biological Sciences Publications
 
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